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  1. Introduction to your list 0 items
    This list provides you with both Required (essential) and Recommended (additional optional) Reading/Viewing/Listening to accompany this module. The list is broken down by Unit and Resource, and where possible you have been provided with electronic content.
  2. Unit 1 - Crime and the Workplace Environment 22 items
    1. Resource 1 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 7 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book  Overview: In order to ensure you have a good grasp of the subject area of security and just some of the disciplines that contribute to it, it is recommended that you read any two chapters from Part 1 of the Handbook of Security entitled ‘Disciplines and Security’. Considerations: As you do so you should write down the 10 disciplines you would consider most important for the development of the body of knowledge on which the study of security should be based, stating the reason why you have chosen each one.

      2. Target Suitability and the Crime Drop - Nick Tilley, Graham Farrell, Ronald V. Clarke

        Chapter Essential Overview: This chapter reviews the reason for the crime drop in parts of the world and specifically reviews the role of security. Considerations: As you read, consider how the role of security, that is good security, contributes to the social good. You may think that its importance has been underplayed?

      3. Risk and Business | Security is Your Business

        Webpage Essential Overview: This short video (3:06) features leading security practitioners who discuss the differences between risk and security, and the different views held by different sectors and practices within organisations. Considerations: What are the broader implications for security management?

      4. Strategic Directions | Security is Your Business

        Webpage Essential Overview: In this short video (8:49) contributors offer different views on how strategic security decisions can influence and be influenced by the organization and its stakeholders. Considerations: How do the views expressed here align with your own views?

      5. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter 22 by Ekblom entitled 'Securing the Knowledge'.This chapter discusses the state of security knowledge and highlights specific tools that can be used to enhance the theory and practice of security. Considerations: As you read consider the strengths and weaknesses of security knowledge as it stands today

      6. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter 41 of the Handbook of Security entitled ‘Where Next for the Professionalization of Security’. This chapter assesses the somewhat vexed question as to the ways and extent to which security risk management is a profession. Considerations: Consider the extent to which you agree with the author’s view that the discipline is ‘immature’.

      7. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book  Please read chapter 25 of the Handbook of Security entitled ‘Crime Mapping as a Tool for Security and Crime Prevention’. Overview: This chapter looks at how crime mapping is used and some of the limitations in current approaches. It outlines some ways in which improvements might be made to enhance practice.

    2. Resource 2 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 6 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis - David J Nutt, Leslie A King, Lawrence D Phillips 11/2010

        Article Essential Overview: This article – written by members of the Independent Scientific Committee on drugs - highlights the importance of harm as a guide to policy and suggests some of the criteria that can be most important when assessing harm. Considerations: Note the significance of the findings and the authors’ conclusion that the findings on harm ‘correlate poorly with present UK drug classification’.

      2. Through Our Eyes: Children, Violence, and Trauma - Office for Victims of Crime 2013

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview: This short video (7:53) represents some examples of harms, it discusses how violence and trauma affect children, including the serious and long-lasting consequences for their physical and mental health; signs that a child may be exposed to violence or trauma; and some costs of child maltreatment to families, communities, and the Nation. Considerations: Should the amount of harm suffered be the main priority for those charged with responding?

      3. What Do We Know About the Effects of Crime on Victims? - J. Shapland, M. Hall 01/05/2007

        Article Essential Overview: This article highlights some of the key issues to be considered in understanding the impact of crime on victims, including business victims. Considerations: Once you have read this article consider how the gaps in knowledge about the impact of the harms on businesses might be filled and best responded to.

      4. A Framework to Assess the Harms of Crimes - V. A. Greenfield, L. Paoli 01/09/2013

        Article Essential Overview: This article proposes a more comprehensive approach to measuring harm. Considerations: To what extent are the benefits of the approach the authors propose limited by its complexity when it comes to the potential for wider adoption by policymakers?

      5. Understanding Organised Crime: Estimating the Scale and the Social and Economic costs - H Mills, S Skodbo, P Blyth

        Document Essential Overview: This report highlights the difficulties of measuring a specific crime type and suggests ways in which they can be managed. It also highlights how the scale and harm can be hidden by (the lack of) official data. Considerations: As you read it consider the implications of measuring and understanding harm from a business perspective.

      6. Crime's Impact on the Survival Prospects of Young Urban Small Businesses - T. Bates, A. Robb 01/08/2008

        Article Essential Overview: The evidence from this study is that the impact of crime on business needs to be treated carefully. Considerations: What are the implications of the findings from this work on developing an effective harm reduction approach for small businesses?

    3. Resource 3 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 9 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter 12 by Levi entitled ‘Fighting Organized Crime and the Threats to Business’. This chapter explores the broader impacts of organised crime and provides a summary of some of the key issues affecting business. Considerations: Consider the ways in which businesses might determine whether the offences they are victimised from are organised or the result of lone offenders.

      2. Measuring and analysing crime against the private sector: International experiences and the Mexican practice. - G Mugellini

        Document Essential Overview: Please read the section by Hopkins entitled ‘Organized crime and the commercial sector in England and Wales: policy, definition and the extent of victimization’. This reading examines the relationship between organized crime and the private sector, including levels of victimization and assesses the methodological gaps that need to be filled. You can download the entire pdf from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía website via the link provided.

      3. The geometry of shadows: a critical review of organised crime risk assessments - Niall Hamilton-Smith, Simon Mackenzie 09/2010

        Article Essential Overview: The article reviews law enforcement approaches to assessing the risk of organised crime, including some of the strengths and weaknesses in current approaches. Considerations: What do you consider to be the priority considerations in determining the risks of organised crime

      4. EU Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA 2013) - Europol

        Webpage Essential Overview: This Organised Crime Threat Assessment results from a review of law enforcement practices on criminal activities and groups affecting the EU. The aim is to guide the setting of priorities on tackling organised crime.

      5. Organized crime and local businesses - N. Tilley, M. Hopkins 01/11/2008

        Article  This study reports on a victimisation survey of local businesses which highlights the complex relationship between organised crime and small business.

      6. The Story of Organized Crime - WatchMojo.com 16/10/2009

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview: In this short (3.32) interview criminologist Stephen Schneider discusses the characteristics of organised crime and the overlap with gang activity, and highlights some of its causes and the ways in which some countries have made progress in responding more effectively, not least by tackling the root causes

      7. Reducing and preventing organised crime: An evidence-based critique - Michael Levi, Mike Maguire 06/2004

        Article Essential Overview: This article explores the possibilities of developing more effective crime reduction strategies in respect of 'organised' crime, an area in which (despite important exceptions, particularly in relation to financial regulation), law enforcement rather than prevention has continued to dominate the thinking and the practical responses of the police and other relevant agencies. Considerations: As you read consider the key opportunities and barriers for an effective partnership between police and private security in tackling organised crime.

      8. Criminal Careers in Organized Crime and Social Opportunity Structure - E. R. Kleemans, C. J. de Poot 01/01/2008

        Article Essential Overview: This paper explores the criminal careers of about 1,000 offenders involved in organised crime. The article explains why certain offenders persist with types of organized crime whereas others become involved only later on in life. Considerations: As you read this note the implications for prevention; what are the key strategies for intervening in criminal careers to reduce commitment to organised crime?

      9. The economic, financial & social impacts of organised crime in the European - M Levi, M Innes, P Reuter, R Gandur

        Document  Overview: This study presents a framework for looking at the costs of organised crime and critically evaluates the data on which assumptions about impact are made. Considerations: As you read consider the gaps in knowledge that exist: what are the most important ones and how might we fill them?

  3. Unit 2 - Crime Prevention: Approaches and Debates 33 items
    1. Resource 1 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 7 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Hot Spot Policing and Displacement, David Weisburd (3 of 7) 5/12/2012

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview: In this short video (9:30) Professor David Weisburd discusses the issues of displacement and diffusion of benefits. Considerations: As you watch this discussion about policing consider the implications for assessing the effectiveness of security measures.

      2. Criminology - Tim Newburn 2013

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter 11 entitled 'Control Theories'. This reading will addresses the theoretical underpinnings and origins of modern crime prevention policy, so-called ‘control theories’. Considerations: Address the review questions on 242.

      3. Situational Crime Prevention - ShortcutsTV 7/7/2014

        Audio-visual document Essential This short video (6:21) discusses a study of a specific form of situational prevention, street lighting. Considerations: As you watch and listen think about the methodology used to establish effectiveness here, and consider the implications of testing other situational approaches.

      4. Handbook of crime prevention and community safety - Nick Tilley 2005

        Book Essential Please read chapter 3 (pages 39-70) BY Clarke entitled ''Seven Misconceptions of Situational Crime Prevention' Overview: This chapter seeks to address critiques of the situational approach. Considerations: As you read consider whether you are persuaded by the rebuttal and consider some critiques of your own.

      5. Crime Reduction Toolkit | College of Policing

        Webpage  Overview: The toolkit contains details about the effectiveness of specific measures, including situational approaches, based on credible research evidence.

      6. Crime prevention, security and community safety using the 5Is framework - Paul Ekblom 2010

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter 9 entitled ‘A Companion Framework for Causes of Crime and Preventive Interventions: The Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity’. Ekblom developed his own frameworks, including the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity, in part because of limitations of the situational approach. Considerations: As you re-read this chapter and in particular pages 147-149 consider the extent to which the critique is justified and its implications for good security.

      7. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

        Website  Overview: This website contains a wealth of information about effective policing (interpreted in its widest sense) and includes a range of ‘POP” guides, many drawing upon situational prevention techniques.

    2. Resource 2 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 14 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) - Joushua Millsapp 2013

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview: This short video (7:07) provides a good introduction into the principals behind CPTED. Considerations: As you view consider how criminal behaviour is influenced by features of the environment and how CPTED can influence the offenders’ perceptions of the likelihood of being caught which serves as a deterrent.

      2. Crime prevention through housing design: policy and practice - Rachel Armitage 2013

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter one entitled 'Exploring the Theoretical Links Between Design and Crime'. This Chapter traces the history and theoretical development of design as a way of managing crime and will introduce you to some of the key arguments and positions on the topic. Considerations: As you read consider how the principles might apply to security management.

      3. Crime prevention: principles, perspectives and practices - Adam Sutton, Adrian Cherney, Rob White 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter four entitled 'Environmental' This chapter provides a useful review of environmental crime prevention enabling you to link concepts to practice. Considerations: As you read consider the overlaps and differences between the different approaches which look at crime from an environmental point of view.

      4. Designing out crime in Western Australia: a case study - Paul Cozens, Michael Thorn, David Hillier 17/10/2008

        Article  Overview: This paper discusses different elements of designing out crime including the need to manage it well and embed the approach in Government policy. Considerations: Thinking of management issues, what are the common elements for security management in both situational crime prevention and designing out crime approaches?

      5. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book  Overview: Please read chapter 3 entitled 'Environmental Studies and Security' by Matthew Manning This chapter highlights some of the research ideas behind street lighting which is often a key component of place based design strategies as well as some of the research issues involved in determining ‘what works’. Considerations: How much reliance should be based on research such as this in thinking about security policy and practice?

      6. Demystifying CPTED - Personal Defence Network

        Webpage Essential Overview: This video looks at the ways in which landscaping around the home can be advised by CPTED principles. You will gain an insight into the scope of using CPTED principles for security purposes. Considerations: As you watch consider the range of issues that might be relevant to the design of the commercial environment.

      7. Crime prevention through housing design: policy and practice - Rachel Armitage 2013

        Book Essential Please read chapters 2, 3, 5 and 10. Overview: These Chapters review the ways in which CPTED principles have been applied in England and Wales. Considerations: As you read assess the evidence on which the judgements on success are made. How convincing is it?

      8. Sustaining the crime reduction impact of designing out crime: Re-evaluating the Secured by Design scheme 10 years on - Rachel Armitage, Leanne Monchuk 10/2011

        Article  This resource and the next provide insights into the effectiveness of CEPTED. Consider listing the benefits from good design for improving security.

      9. It Looks Good, but What is it Like to Live There? Exploring the Impact of Innovative Housing Design on Crime - Rachel Armitage, Leanne Monchuk, Michelle Rogerson 2011-3

        Article  As with the previous resource, this paper provides insights into the effectiveness of CEPTED. Consider listing the benefits from good design for improving security.

      10. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book  Overview Please read Chapter 3 Environmental Studies and Security by Richard Sneider This chapter provides a critique of those approaches that focus on design, questioning the empirical evidence and highlighting the adaptive role of offenders. Considerations: In your view, how robust are the principles on which CPTED is based?

      11. Video clips for retailers - GETBA

        Webpage Essential Overview: This short video (2.58) provides a practical lesson from New Zealand as to how you can redesign the internal and external environment to make crime less likely. Considerations: As you view assess the different ways CPTED principles can be used to enhance security.

      12. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design 16/8/2012

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview: This second video (12:21) is from Langley, USA, where the town has applied CPTED principles comprehensively. Considerations: As you view assess the different ways CPTED principles can be used to enhance security.

      13. Crime prevention: principles, perspectives and practices - Adam Sutton, Adrian Cherney, Rob White 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter seven: Public Places This chapter reviews the application of CPTED principles to public places. Considerations: As you read consider the different implications for security if you were to compare public places with commercial buildings.

      14. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book  Please read chapter 23 Working with Offenders by Richard Moule Overview: This chapter invites you to think more broadly about prevention via understanding how offenders behave. Considerations: What are the difficulties in learning from the offender perspective?

    3. Resource 3 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 12 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Developmental crime prevention - R Homel

        Document Essential Read these two papers. The first provides a general overview of developmental crime prevention, the second an evaluation of Family Intervention Projects in the UK. Together they provide you with the principles of social crime prevention from theory to practice. How important are social crime prevention issues to security management? Task Having read these papers, consider whether: such initiatives are effective; and if so, what methods might be used to implement them most effectively?

      2. Family intervention projects: a classic case of policy-based evidence - D Gregg

        Webpage Essential Overview: This paper evaluates Family Intervention Projects in the UK. It provides you with the principles of social crime prevention from theory to practice. Considerations: How important are social crime prevention issues to security management?

      3. The Future of Crime Prevention: Developmental and Situational Strategies - B Welsh, D Farringdon

        Document Essential Overview: In this paper the authors look forwards at different crime prevention approaches. Considerations: From their overview consider the relative importance of social crime prevention in the context of other crime prevention initiatives at the neighbourhood level.

      4. Social crime prevention in late modern Europe: a comparative perspective - P Hebberecht,, E Baillergeau 2012

        Book  Overview: This book provides an insight into how social crime prevention is practised in different countries. Considerations: Consider the importance of local context in determining different approaches.

      5. Health: Drug Education - D McKinney 13/9/2012

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview: This video (8:17) and the next were developed for educational purposes hoping to shock people and therefore deter them from drug misuse. They provide you with a sense of the task crime prevention is faced with. Considerations: What are the pros and cons of using this tactic to alert people to dangers?

      6. Old Before My Time Drugs Documentary - YouTube

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview Please watch the the first 10 minutes of the video. This videos were developed for educational purposes hoping to shock people and therefore deter them from drug misuse. They provide you with a sense of the task crime prevention is faced with. Considerations What are the pros and cons of using this tactic to alert people to dangers?

      7. DrugWise

        Website Essential Overview: Surf the DrugScope website to assess the value of drugs education. Considerations: With reference to the two video clips you have watched, how successful do you think they might be? What are their limitations and how do you think these can be overcome.

      8. The Oxford handbook of criminology - Mike Maguire, Rodney Morgan, Robert Reiner 2012

        Book Essential Please read the chapter entitled ‘Offender treatment and rehabilitation: what works? By F. Losel Overview: This chapter provides an evaluation of community programmes. Considerations: As you read this critically assess some of the factors that enable some to work (at least to some extent) and some to fail.

      9. Screening and Brief Intervention of Detainees for Alcohol Use: A Social Crime Prevention Approach to Combating Alcohol-Related Crime? - ADRIAN BARTON 02/2011

        Article Essential Overview: This paper reports on an evaluation of a scheme to tackle alcohol related crime. Considerations: What are the benefits and potential drawbacks of combining a situational approach controlling the times and places people consume alcohol with social approaches looking at the ways in which people use alcohol?

      10. P10 - Probation Programs and the Crime-Reduction Potential of Structured Community Supervision - Advancing Corrections 2012

        Audio-visual document  Overview: This is a rather long presentation to the International Corrections and Prisons Association annual conference, in which McGuire, a leading force behind the ‘What Works?’ revival, argues for targeted intervention through accredited programmes.

      11. Probation - It Works! - Thames Valley Probation 2010

        Audio-visual document  In contrast to the previous resource, this short video (7:23) is a proclamation from the field.

      12. What else works?: creative work with offenders - Jo Brayford, Francis Cowe, John Deering 2010

        Book  Overview: Dip into this book as it provides of some examples of creative community supervision programmes. Considerations: As you do assess the important lessons for security management.

  4. Unit 3 - Technology and Surveillance 19 items
    1. Resource 1 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 7 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Great Books: 1984 (GEORGE ORWELL) 2013

        Audio-visual document Essential Watch the first ten minutes of the video Overview: The video presents the book ‘1984’ by George Orwell. Considerations: Link the content of the book with the main topic of surveillance. How is surveillance exercised in Oceania? Who is the Big Brother? And why does Big Brother exist? What is the moral behind 1984? What does visibility do to the characters in the book?

      2. Surveillance schools: security, discipline and control in contemporary education - Emmeline Taylor 2013

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter 4 entitled ‘Panoptic Pedagogy and the Political Economy of Surveillance Schools’. This chapter applies the principles of the Panopticon to the school setting. Considerations: As you read through consider how the principles may be applied to another context you are familiar with.

      3. Criminology - Tim Newburn 2013

        Book Essential Overview Please read chapter 11. This reading addresses the theoretical underpinnings and origins of modern crime prevention policy, socalled ‘control theories’. Considerations The ‘review questions’ on page 242 will help guide you through thinking in this area.

      4. From the Panopticon to Disney World: the Development of Discipline - C Stenning, P Shearing

        Document Essential Overview: At page 301, the authors lead you through a virtual tour of Disneyworld, by describing all the ways in which control is maintained upon arrival to the park. Considerations: What feeling do you have from this reading? How is discipline maintained in Disneyworld? And why? How is this related to the Panopticon? Can you think of other situations similar to the one described for Disneyworld in your daily life?

      5. Is Modern Surveillance Really 'Orwellian' - J Bartlett

        Webpage Essential Overview: Familiarise yourself with the content of this opinion article on the Huffington Post, by reading a summary online of the book 1984 by George Orwell. Considerations: Reflect on what the author (Bartlett, 2014) means when he says that “In 1984, state surveillance and control was total, absolute. A constant tele-screen mounted in every single room in the country picked up every noise above a whisper, every move. But nothing was illegal in Oceania, because there were no laws, which meant you could be arrested for anything, you wouldn't know what”? Think of all the ways we are under surveillance and how this differs from the classic ‘Big Brother’ society portrayed by Orwell. How is social control exercised today? How is that different from earlier forms of surveillance in the Big Brother and in the Panopticon?

      6. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Read Chapter 40 by John Deukmedjian entitled ‘Securitization, Infopolitics, and the Suppression of Liberty’ Overview: This chapter looks at the contexts in which security and liberty are framed and the extent to which a population is identifiable and to which governance becomes is practiced. Considerations: In this chapter you will gain an insights into some of the debates and tensions between security and liberty.

      7. CCTV: BEYOND PENAL MODERNISM? - Clive Norris and Michael McCahill 2006

        Article  Overview: This article draws upon research conducted for the URBANEYE project to ask how the rapid growth in the use of CCTV in the United Kingdom fits in with contemporary debates on the emergence of a ‘postmodern’ penality. The article reviews the theoretical literature on visual surveillance and then draws upon empirical research to examine the practice of video surveillance in four different settings—an open-street CCTV system, a transport system (mainline railway station), West London Mall and South London Mall.

    2. Resource 2 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 6 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces - W Whyte

        Webpage Essential Overview: Watch the first twenty minutes of this documentary that considers the elements necessary when planning urban public spaces. Considerations: Consider whether these elements are still valid today and why. Reflect on what impacts people’s feelings of security and safety and what can be done, within public spaces, to increase these feelings. While more than 30 years have passed from when the documentary was made, try to address differences and similarities of today’s social life when compared against what the documentary portrays. Considerations: With this in mind consider how the elements of security/insecurity as understood and presented in the documentary can be replicated in the virtual space. What is different, what is similar? Why?

      2. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing | 25 Techniques

        Webpage Essential Overview: This are the 25 techniques you have already engaged with earlier in the course. Considerations: Interact with the each cell in the grid presented and identify how the researchers from the POP Center (one of the leading research centres in this field) envisage the use of technology and surveillance to reach the objectives of situational crime prevention. For example, within ‘Increase the Effort’ we can see that both controlling access to an, exit from, facilities relies on the use of electronics. Similarly, within ‘Increase the risks’, places can be managed through the use of surveillance to provide technological guardianship over the space and against potential offenders. How does technology increase the chances to use surveillance effectively for purposes of crime prevention?

      3. Face-recognition software: Is this the end of anonymity for all of us? - K Chayka

        Webpage Essential Overview: This article addresses the issue of facial recognition software. Considerations: As you read this artccle try to identify the opinion of the journalist then reflect on the following questions. What are some of the uses of face-recognition software? What are some of the current uses of these types of software that you have experienced? What are the pros and cons of face-recognition? Can you link the conceptualization of visibility- as we analysed it earlier in this unit –to this set of surveillance techniques? Why is the challenge of face-recognition to anonymity a problem at all? How would you link anonymity to privacy in this context? Are these two concepts necessarily linked?

      4. The Public Domain: Social Surveillance in Everyday Life - A Marwick

        Webpage Essential Overview: This article considers social surveillance Considerations: Reflect on the findings of the research. In particular identify what kind of argument the author is making. What does it mean to say that social media allows the public to exercise public surveillance on each other? What are the differences between traditional and social surveillance? Are power, hierarchy and reciprocity respected elements in the former as well as in the latter? How does social surveillance affect behaviours? How is that different from traditional surveillance? What is the revolution of social media? How do they alter social contexts and social roles in a way that, according to the author, facilitates surveillance?

      5. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book  Overview: Read chapter 15 by Chang and Grabolsky entitled 'Cybercrime and establishing a secure cyberworld’. Considerations: This chapter discusses the nature of cyber crime and various limitations of laws and regulations and other constraints on cybercrime investigation and prevention. It highlights the difficulties and key elements of an effective response including the role of cross-national and cross-sector collaboration.

      6. The Value of Privacy in an Era of Security: Embedding Constitutional Limits on Preemptive Surveillance - Valsamis Mitsilegas 03/2014

        Article  Overview: This article argues that the reconfiguration of the security landscape in recent years has resulted in the transformation of the relationship between the individual and the state. This transformation can be seen in growing securitization and pre-emptive surveillance through risk assessment. The author argues that the pre-emptive turn in surveillance has been based largely upon the collection, processing, and exchange of personal data generated by ordinary, everyday life activities. This is a good article if you wish to explore the legal grounds of the debate between security through surveillance and privacy.

    3. Resource 3 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 6 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. CCTV Technical Concepts - UK Home Office Scientific Development Branch

        Webpage Essential Overview: Watch this collection of 12 videos of 2-4 minutes each that illustrates details of CCTVs use and characteristics. Considerations: Reflect on what are the challenges to an effective use of CCTVs for surveillance and most of all reflect upon how to use this information for purposes of review and evaluation of the technology in exam.

      2. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Read Chapter 31 by Taylor and Gill entitled ‘CCTV: Reflections on its use, abuse and effectiveness’. This chapter provides an overview of research on CCTV including a summary of research on whether CCTV works. Considerations: As you read it consider the main problems you would have to overcome if you were to evaluate the effectiveness of a CCTV system you are familiar with.

      3. Biometric Applications Related to Human Beings: There Is Life beyond Security - Marcos Faundez-Zanuy, Amir Hussain, Jiri Mekyska, Enric Sesa-Nogueras 2013-3

        Article Essential Overview: Read this scholarly article on the uses of biometrics beyond security and use as both starting and end point to approach biometrics systems for security, surveillance and beyond. The paper includes graphics and figures that require specialist knowledge of the field to be interpreted. Considerations: How much of the article is understandable without prior knowledge? How much of a gap there exist for non-experts in understanding the application of biometrics? How does this specialism affect the overall application and comprehension of advantages and disadvantages of biometrics?

      4. Tracking devices: On the reception of a novel security good - A. Thumala, B. Goold, I. Loader 01/02/2015

        Article Essential Overview: In this article, the authors describe the reception of the personal GPS tracking device. They focus on a particular juncture in the ‘social life’ of tracking, the moment at which personal trackers were novel goods in the early stages of being brought to market and promoted as protective devices. Considerations: The article is a good example of the most contemporary assessment of security devices against privacy and risk concerns.

      5. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Read Chapter 29 by Smith entitled, ‘Security Technology in the Protection of Assets’. This chapter discusses the principles and criteria that govern the use of technology in the protection of assets and draws on theories from both hard and soft sciences. You will read about the role of access control systems in a physical security strategy including the function of biometric ID. Some future directions are also discussed

      6. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Read Chapter 29 by Smith in the Handbook of Security, ‘Security Technology in the Protection of Assets’. This chapter discusses the principles and criteria that govern the use of technology in the protection of assets and draws on theories from both hard and soft sciences. Considerations: Consider how the role access control systems in a physical security strategy, including the function of biometric ID, may help protect assets across a range of organisations.

  5. Unit 4 - White Collar and Corporate Crime 30 items
    1. Resource 1 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 12 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book  Overview: Please read the first 2 pages of chapter 10 entitled 'Corporate Fraud ' Considerations: Although Waring’s bullet-point list of ten categories of corporate fraud is more detailed and comprehensive than the SFO’s four primary categories of corporate fraud which follow in the next readings(SFO, 2015), consider whether there are additional categories that might warrant inclusion in the list.Compare this with the SFO taxonomy of corporate fraud and diagram that follow in the next three readings

      2. The phantom capitalists: the organization and control of long-firm fraud - Michael Levi 2008

        Book Essential Overview: Read the chapter ‘Craft of the Long-Firm Fraudster’. Levi’s book focuses on a particular kind of corporate fraud in which the company principals set out with a long-term plan to systematically siphon off large amounts of money, to the extent that eventually the company hits an irrecoverable cash-flow crisis and goes bankrupt as they intended. Case examples of this kind of fraud are provided in Unit 4 Resource 2. Considerations: What are the key points and issues made by Levi?

      3. Match-Fixing – the Biggest Threat to Sport in the 21st Century? - K Carpenter

        Webpage  Overview Read the article by Carpenter on match-fixing. Consider Carpenter’s comments about the variety of causes and motivations prevalent in this kind of fraud. He cites non-payment of wages and very low wages as potential provocations but provides abundant case evidence that wealthy and privileged individuals and groups are also heavily engaged in match and bet fixing. Are poverty, deprivation and culturally ingrained acceptance of cheating valid justifications for fraud of any kind? Are such conditions deterministic causes of crime or merely associated factors? Such questions are discussed further in Causes of White Collar Crime later in Unit 4 Resource 1.

      4. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Please read the chapter (14) on Identity Fraud' by Pontell and Geiss Considerations: To what extent does the ever burgeoning use of on-line bank accounts, on-line banking, on-line purchasing, social networking and other on-line services facilitate the activities of identity fraudsters? Consider the practical steps that individuals and corporate organizations may have to take in order to deter and prevent identity fraud.

      5. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book  Overview: Read chapter 11 enitled ‘Immovable Property Fraud’ (pages 133-150). Considerations: What do you deduce from the case studies about the effectiveness of the caveat emptor principle and the EU Unfair Commercial Practices Directive in protecting buyers from fraud?

      6. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book Essential Overview: Read chapter 12 ‘Combatting Intellectual Property Threats’ (pages 153-161), making notes on key points and issues, such as an over-emphasis on enforcement action in the sales and distribution phase of a product’s life-cycle (see Fig 12.1, page 159). Considerations: Consider your own position and attitude. Have you ever knowingly purchased a counterfeit item? Is this kind of WCC driven mainly by demand or by supply? If supplies of counterfeit goods dried up, would you consider it a major blow to your lifestyle and existence?

      7. Prosecuting tax evasion - K Starner

        Webpage Essential Overview Read the speech on tax evasion by the UK Director of Public Prosecutions (Starmer, 2013). Considerations: There have been a number of public admissions by UK tax authorities that where very large taxable sums are involved they are prepared to negotiate with those having the tax liability. What do you see as the pros and cons of such a policy in the battle against tax evasion?

      8. HMRC wins Eclipse 35 case at Court of Appeal - 18 Feb 2015 - Accountancy Age - C Fuller

        Webpage  Overview The Eclipse 35 discussed by Fuller (2015) shows the ever-increasing ingenuity and sophistication of tax evaders. Considerations: There have been a number of public admissions by UK tax authorities that where very large taxable sums are involved they are prepared to negotiate with those having the tax liability. What do you see as the pros and cons of such a policy in the battle against tax evasion?

      9. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book Essential Overview: Read pages 109-116 of chapter 9 on ‘The Nature and Scope of Corruption’, Considerations: Pay particular attention to the contrasting motivations that were revealed in the two case studies (case 9.1 and case 9.2). Motivations for WCC are discussed further in the next section, Causes of White Collar Crime.

      10. Managing risk - Alan Waring, A. Ian Glendon 1998

        Book Essential Overview: Read pages 210-219 and 227-242 of chapter 11 The Collapse of Barings Bank in Waring and Glendon (1998), which describes many of the various factors that operated in the WCC that ended in the bank’s collapse. Considerations: Pay particular attention to how the POAR model applied to Nick Leeson who perpetrated the crime. Note also the organizational factors at Barings such as laissez-faire management style, lack of risk management controls and the competitive bonus-fixated culture of greed, all of which undoubtedly facilitated Leeson’s WCC. What was Leeson’s primary motivation?

      11. Fraud and recessions: Views from fraudsters and fraud managers - Martin Gill 2011

        Article  Overview Read Gill’s article, paying particular attention to his caution about predicting that an adverse economic climate will lead to an increase in financial crimes. Considerations To what extent do you think that factors which impinge on the individual rather than the individual’s own decisions per se are the predominant causes of such crimes?

      12. The Fraud Triangle revisited - Alexander Schuchter, Michael Levi 04/02/2013

        Article  Overview Read Schuchter and Levi’s article. Considerations Does the expanded Fraud Triangle of Motivation, Capability, Opportunity and Rationalization adequately cover the necessary and fully sufficient conditions for fraud to occur? What is your opinion on the adequacy of the following potential analytical model (POAR) based on the expanded Fraud Triangle? • P - Predisposition (knowledge/capability, personality, attitudes, cultural influences, underlying motivation). • O - Opportunity to carry out a specific WCC in a specific context. • A - Availability of suitable method, means and resources. • R - Risk Calculation of ‘what can we get away with?’, taking account of specific motivation, value of desired outcome, efficacy of means and likelihood that desired outcome will be achieved i.e. a rationalization.

    2. Resource 2 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 8 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book  Overview: Read Case 10.2 ‘The Enron Scandal’ (pages 126-128). Considerations; Undoubtedly, this was a case of WCC but what features do you detect that also warrant its categorization as a crime by the body corporate? To what extent does it appear that the profit motive became a justification for illegality?

      2. Enron's Skilling Answers Markey at Hearing; Eyes Roll - rghm 2008

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview Watch again from Module 2 Unit 2 Resource 1 the short (5:16) video of Senator Edward Markey’s interrogation at the US Congressional investigation 7th February 2002 of former Enron CEO Jeffery Skilling, following the collapse of Enron in December 2001. Considerations: Note his steadfast denial of any knowledge of impending crisis or collapse.

      3. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book Essential Overview: A clear-cut instance of corporate fraud is furnished by the fraudulent scheme devised by the directors of Olympus, the digital imaging and camera company, to hide over US$1.5 billion in investment losses. Read Case 9.2 ‘Olympus and a Board Whistleblower’ (pages 112-114) in chapter 9 ‘The Nature and Scope of Corruption’ in Waring (2013). As first raised in Module 2 Unit 2 Resource 3. Consider the underlying motives of the other board members in perpetrating the fraud and then victimizing CEO Woodford when he found out.

      4. Inside the Madoff Scandal: Chapter One - Wall Street Journal 27/12/2011

        Audio-visual document  Overview: Watch both chapters of the video on the Madoff scandal, the first lasting 10 minutes 13seconds and the second 6 minutes and 7 seconds. Considerations: Make notes on the factors that appear to be prominent in this classic Ponzi fraud totalling some US$ 17.5billion in which ‘older’ investors can only be paid their gains safely provided that ‘newer’ investors continue to bring in new money. Should ‘new’ investment money start to fall short, the pyramid scheme becomes unsustainable and collapses. Although there is some evidence of personal greed involved, it would appear that Madoff, a former chairman of NASDAQ, perpetuated the scheme out of personal and corporate vanity to avoid owning up to the crime. Note the deliberate lack of transparency in Madoff’s modus operandi and use of an elitist mystique to avoid answering legitimate questions, characteristics reminiscent of the Enron case.

      5. Inside the Madoff Scandal: Chapter Two - Wall Street Journal 27/12/2011

        Audio-visual document  Overview: Watch both chapters of the video on the Madoff scandal, the first lasting 10 minutes 13seconds and the second 6 minutes and 7 seconds. Considerations: Make notes on the factors that appear to be prominent in this classic Ponzi fraud totalling some US$ 17.5billion in which ‘older’ investors can only be paid their gains safely provided that ‘newer’ investors continue to bring in new money. Should ‘new’ investment money start to fall short, the pyramid scheme becomes unsustainable and collapses. Although there is some evidence of personal greed involved, it would appear that Madoff, a former chairman of NASDAQ, perpetuated the scheme out of personal and corporate vanity to avoid owning up to the crime. Note the deliberate lack of transparency in Madoff’s modus operandi and use of an elitist mystique to avoid answering legitimate questions, characteristics reminiscent of the Enron case.

      6. United States V. Bernard L. Madoff And Related Cases | USAO-SDNY | Department of Justice - The United States Attorneys Office

        Webpage  Overview: Read the Introduction, Prior Proceedings and Update sections of the US Attorney’s Office statement on the Madoff and related cases, which indicate that Madoff was aided and abetted by senior executives. Corporate crimes can rarely succeed without participation by a number of senior executives. Considerations: How does this compare with the Enron case?

      7. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book  Overview: Overview Read Case 10.1 ‘Contingent Payment Scandals’, (page 125) in chapter 10 of Waring (2013), which summarizes the high profile Marsh and McLennan case.

      8. Ex-Olympus CEO Woodford Says All Directors Should Go - Bloomberg Express 10/1/2012

        Audio-visual document  Overview: Watch the Bloomberg video (5:06). In 2013, former chairman Tuyoshi Kikukawa and former Vice-President Hisashi Mori were sentenced to 3.5 years in prison and Hideo Yamada to 2.5 years for false accounting.

    3. Resource 3 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 10 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book Essential Overview: Read the first part of chapter 7 ‘The Abuse of Trust’, (pages 87-92), ending before the sub-heading ‘Periodic In-Service Checks’. Considerations: Consider the assumptions that employers often make about job candidates’ truthfulness in their job applications, CVs and interviews. How often are candidates presumed to be honest without adequately checking to make sure?

      2. Managing risk - Alan Waring, A. Ian Glendon 1998

        Book  Overview: Read chapter 11 entitled ‘The Collapse of Barings Bank’ (pages 212 -256). Reliance on blind trust, as in Nick Leeson’s initial appointment and subsequent transfer at Barings, facilitates, if not encourages, breaches of trust by individuals who may be tempted. An individual’s integrity should never be taken for granted. Due diligence checks are necessary parts of a controlled framework of limited trust – see, for example, Pearce (2000).

      3. Learning from Fraudsters. - M Gill

        Document Essential BROKEN LINK Overview: Read Gill’s study of prisoners convicted of frauds ranging from £50,000 to many millions of £ and note how many of them were long-serving employees.

      4. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book  Overview: Read the section Periodic In-Service Checks of chapter 7 ‘The Abuse of Trust’, beginning on page 92 and ending at Pre-Investment Due Diligence on page 95. Compare and contrast the apparent motivations of the perpetrators in the three cases 7.3 Soc Gen and Kerviel, 7.4 Asia Pacific Breweries and 7.5 Business Media China, respectively self-aggrandisement (7.3), greed and gambling debts (7.4), and greed and ambition (7.5). As with Leeson at Barings, note in all three cases the absence of in-service due diligence checks (and apparently adequate pre-employment checks) on the perpetrators that might have stopped their crimes. The two further cases (7.8 and 7.9) highlight the vulnerability of organizations to predatory ‘con men’ and the need for adequate pre-partnership due diligence to identify and remove the threat.

      5. Corporate risk and governance: an end to mismanagement, tunnel vision and quackery - Alan Waring 2013

        Book  Overview: Read case 9.3 The ‘Rajagate’ Indian Telecoms Scandal, page 117 in Waring (2013). There are various links in the chain of alleged laundering of money allegedly obtained from systematic fraud and grand corruption. Note also how AML controls apparently failed to detect the illegal money movements when they occurred.

      6. The Criminology of White-Collar Crime - Sally S. Simpson, David Weisburd 2009

        Book Essential Overview: Please read the chapter by Dugan and Gibbs entitled ‘The Role of Organizational Structures in the Control of Corporate Crime and TerrorismIn this chapter, Dugan and Gibbs draw direct comparisons between corporate crime and terrorism in order to improve our understanding on how to better control each Considerations: The senior managements of organizations require very compelling reasons to change their organizational structures, in view of the associated disruption and cost. What examples of compelling reasons (proactive and reactive) relating to WCC prevention and control can you identify?

      7. Fraud and recessions: Views from fraudsters and fraud managers - Martin Gill 2011-9

        Article Essential Overview: Gill (2011) examines the motives of WCC perpetrators and what factors might deter or prevent them undertaking such crimes. Plausible deterrent factors, including the likelihood of detection, apprehension and conviction, and the prevailing judicial sentencing policy, do not appear to play a major part in the risk calculation made by WCC offenders even though they may be a necessary punishment. Considerations: With reference to the Fraud Triangle (Cressey, 1953; Schuchter and Levi, 2013) and the derivative POAR model both introduced in Resource 1 of this Unit, what do Gill’s findings that the criminal’s expectation of being caught was often low in their risk calculation suggest about the relative priorities in tackling Predisposition, Opportunity and Availability-of-means factors in deterrence and prevention?

      8. Public and Private Policing of Financial Crimes: the Struggle for Co-ordination - M Levi

        Document  Overview: This is the first of three readings that give a variety of reasons why UK policing of WCC may not be fully coordinated with corporate security and anti-fraud activity.

      9. Regulating fraud: white-collar crime and the criminal process - Michael Levi 1987

        Book  Overview: This second reading adds to the variety of reasons why UK policing of WCC may not be fully coordinated with corporate security and anti-fraud activity. NOTE: Although this is only recommended reading you can always request a copy of the chapter from the library if you are particularly interested in the topic.

      10. A case of arrested development? Delivering the UK National Fraud Strategy within competing policing policy priorities - Alan Doig, Michael Levi 03/2013

        Article  Overview: These third reading adds to the variety of reasons why UK policing of WCC may not be fully coordinated with corporate security and anti-fraud activity.

  6. Unit 5 - Loss Prevention 18 items
    1. Resource 1 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 8 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Read two of any of the following chapters from the Handbook of Security: • Signing Security by Nick Tilley • Intrusion Detection Systems in the Protection of Assets by David Brooks • CCTV: Reflections on its Use, Abuse and Effectiveness by Emmeline Taylor and Martin Gill • The Security Officer by Mahesh Nalla and Alison Wakefield Considerations: Thinking specifically about the retail environment consider the main opportunities for the measures you have read about in terms of how they can impact on retail loss, and then consider the main impediments to those measures working effectively in retail outlets

      2. The Importance of Visual Situational Cues and Difficulty of Removal in Creating Deterrence: The Limitations of Electronic Article Surveillance Source Tagging in the Retail Environment - Adrian Beck, Walter Palmer 30/12/2010

        Article  Overview: Put simply, there are two types of tags, soft tags, which are often applied at the point of manufacture, or hard tags typically applied in store. This article reports on an evaluation comparing soft and hard tags and the results were dramatic – soft tags which much more effective at reducing shrink - with potentially important implications for controlling shrinkage.

      3. Self-scan checkouts and retail loss: Understanding the risk and minimising the threat - Adrian Beck 2011-7

        Article  Overview: This study looks at the link between self scan checkouts and shrinkage and while the author reports that the evidence on effectiveness is limited he suggests ways in which this might be changed for the better.

      4. Global Retail Theft Barometer Highlights 2013-2014 - CheckpointSys 2014

        Audio-visual document Essential Overview: This short video (2:40) provides an executive summary of the Global Retail Theft Barometer Study from 2013-14 and gives an indication of the scale of different types of loss. Considerations: Consider the impact this may have on attempts to reduce loss.

      5. New loss prevention: Redefining shrinkage management - Adrian Beck, Colin Peacock 2009

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapters 9 and 10 ‘Introducing New Loss Prevention’ and ‘Implementing New Loss Prevention’ respectively. These two chapters provide you with an insight of the principles of ‘new loss prevention’ and the approach that needs to be taken to deliver effective shrinkage management. You will also read more about the loss prevention pyramid. Considerations: As with the previous reading consider how can we more accurately assess the risk of crimes against retailers? What are the problems in using data on loss as a basis for developing preventive strategies? What are the implications for developing an effective response to managing retail loss?

      6. Shopping and crime - Joshua Bamfield 2012

        Book Essential Overview: Please read Chapter 10 ‘Managing Loss Prevention’. In this chapter you will learn about the roles of leadership, communication, project management and planning in responding to retail crime. Considerations: This is the final reading of the three and you should again consider: How can we more accurately assess the risk of crimes against retailers? What are the problems in using data on loss as a basis for developing preventive strategies? What are the implications for developing an effective response to managing retail loss?

      7. Assessing Risks in an Omnichannel Retail World - MossAdamsLLP 2013

        Audio-visual document  Overview: One area of the more recent trends is omni channel retailing which, when done well, facilitates a seamless approach through different shopping channels such as computers, mobile Internet gadgets, radio, television, catalogue and direct mail among others. This video presentation (57:09) looks at some the risks that need to be considered alongside the sales opportunity.

      8. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter 17, by Beck entitled ‘Understanding Loss in the Retail Sector’, pp. 361-382. This chapter will provide you with a good overview of retail crime. Considerations: With this reading and the two that follow, consider how can we more accurately assess the risk of crimes against retailers? What are the problems in using data on loss as a basis for developing preventive strategies? What are the implications for developing an effective response to managing retail loss?

    2. Resource 2 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 6 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Supply chain risk: understanding emerging threats to global supply chains - John Manners-Bell 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Please read Pages 5-30.This will give an excellent introduction to the varied nature of threats to a supply chain and the issue of globalisation. Considerations: How has globalisation effected risk management?

      2. Supply chain risk management and compilation of best practices

        Document Essential Overview Please read Pages 47-77. The third chapter of Manners-Bell’s book gives excellent insight into how supply chain risks affect different industries. Considerations Pay particular attention to the sections on retail/consumer goods and food.

      3. Supply chain risk management and compilation of best practices

        Document Essential Overview: Please read Pages 47-77. The third chapter of Manners-Bell’s book gives excellent insight into how supply chain risks affect different industries. Considerations: Pay particular attention to the sections on retail/consumer goods and food.

      4. SHRINKAGE: A COLLABORATIVE APPROACH TO REDUCING STOCK LOSS IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN - A Beck, P Chapman, C Peacock

        Document Essential Overview: This offers a detailed explanation of the Shrinkage Road Map and how it can be implemented in a supply chain risk management strategy.

      5. Situational Crime Prevention and Supply Chain Security: An “Ex Ante” Consideration of Preventive Measures - Harald Haelterman 06/10/2009

        Article Essential Overview: Haelterman’s gives a detailed analysis of how situational crime prevention methods can be used effectively to prepare for threats to the supply chain.

      6. Supply chain security—mitigation measures and a logistics multi-layered framework - Luca Urciuoli 2010-3

        Article  Overview: This article will help you understand the needs of supply chain managers when considering threats

    3. Resource 3 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 4 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2006

        Book Essential Overview: Please read chapter 9 by Hollinger and Davies entitled ‘Employee theft and staff dishonesty‘.

      2. Shoplifting - R Clarke, G Petrossian

        Document Essential Overview: This Guide provides good discussion of the threats posed by shop thieves and how different measures may be used to respond effectively. Considerations: To what extent and in what ways do effective approaches to measuring and tackling shop theft and staff dishonesty overlap?

      3. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book  Please read Chapter 27 by Hayes and Grottini entitled ‘Evaluations and Randomized Controlled Trials in Security Research’. This chapter provides an overview of evaluation research which includes a major focus on retail examples.

      4. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book  Please read Chapter 37 by Walsh entitled ‘Managing Intelligence and Responding to Emerging Threats’. This chapter provides a discussion of the use of intelligence to inform strategy; consider as you read it parallels that might be drawn with retailing.

  7. Unit 6 - Violence and the Security Risk Management Environment 27 items
    1. Resource 1 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 13 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. workplace as combat zone: reconceptualizing occupational and organizational violence - Ann M. Callender Knefel, Clifton D. Bryant 11/2004

        Article Essential Overview: This article discusses workplace violence in six different contexts; Workplace as Locus, as Opportunity Structure, as Incubator, as Target, as Nexus, and as Perpetrator. Considerations: How can these contexts be helpful to a security manager?

      2. Canadian Perspectives on Conceptualizing and Responding to Workplace Violence - DEREK CHECHAK, RICK CSIERNIK 02/01/2014

        Article Essential Overview: This article offers students a Canadian perspective on the emerging development of workplace violence as a concept and appropriate legislative and organizational responses. Considerations: How persuasive are the arguments?

      3. Violence at work - Duncan Chappell, Vittorio Di Martino, International Labour Office 2006

        Book  Overview This is one of the ‘classic’ texts on workplace violence which gives detailed and sound information on this topic.

      4. Expanding the Content Domain of Workplace Aggression: A Three-level Aggressor-target Taxonomy - Jonathan Pinto 07/2014

        Article  Overview This article gives detailed theoretical analysis of types and sources of occupational aggression and violence.

      5. The Handbook of Security - M. L. Gill 2014

        Book Essential Overview: Read the chapter on Workplace Violence by Stutzenberger and Fisher from the Handbook of Security and then at least two of the other three: Terrorism by Kumar Ramakrishna Murder at Work by Zech Lee and Bob McCrie Piracy and Robbery by Robert Beckman and Monique Page • • Each of these chapters focuses on a very different type of violence that can occur at the workplace reflecting both the diverse nature of threats that can be considered on this topic, and crucially the quite different types of responses that can be relevant. Considerations: Identify from the readings and your own experiences some key triggers of two types of workplace violence and then consider the types of preventive approaches that would be most appropriate for each.

      6. Violence at Work - D Chappell, V Martino

        Document Essential Overview: Read the sub section entitled ‘Costs of violence at work’ (pages 136-140) This section will provide an understanding of how impacts to individuals, organisation and the community can be measured in terms of ‘cost’. Considerations: Why are costs not routinely collected on this issue and what are the potential uses to which such data might be put by those responsible for security.

      7. Workplace violence: planning for prevention and response - Kim M. Kerr 2010

        Book Essential Overview: Read chapter 6 entitled ‘Business Impacts of Workplace Violence’. This Chapter provides a detailed insight into the potential impacts of workplace violence for organisations. Considerations: How might these insights be used to help draw attention to workplace violence? What are the potential benefits and drawbacks in such an approach?

      8. The Financial Impact of Workplace Violence

        Document Essential Overview: Here you will read about an analysis of the financial costs of workplace violence. Considerations: Is the methodology used for determining costs persuasive?

      9. The Kind of Mental Health Problems and it Association with Aggressiveness: A Study on Security Guards - Affizal Ahmad

        Article Essential Overview: This article discusses the risk factors for mental health issues that may contribute to workplace violence among security guards. Considerations: As you read consider how these issues might best be managed.

      10. Burnout, critical incidents and social support in security guards - Stijn Vanheule, Frederic Declercq, Reitske Meganck, Mattias Desmet 04/2008

        Article Essential Overview: This study discusses the relationship between traumatic experiences and burnout in security staff as well as the buffering effect of social support. Considerations: What are the key features of a security officers’ role that contribute to the problems and how night these best be responded to?

      11. Operational security management in violent environments - Good Practice Review

        Document Essential Overview: This is an extremely useful and comprehensive guide for those providing security within violent environments. Considerations: As you read consider the importance of context in tackling violence.

      12. A Job-Specific Social Skills Training program for people with severe mental illness: a case study for those who plan to be a security guard - Leo C.C. Cheung,Hector W.H. Tsang,Christopher U. Tsui 2006

        Article  Overview: This study discusses the social skills training needed by people with severe mental illness to gain employment as security guards. Considerations: As you read evaluate the evidence on which this study is based and consider the implications for security management.

      13. Work-related Violence against Security Guards— Who is Most at Risk? - T LEINO, R SELIN, H SUMMALA, M VIRTANEN

        Webpage  Overview: This paper assesses the types, prevalence, and risk factors for violence that security staff may face. Considerations: How might these insights be sued by management to respond most effectively to risky situations?

    2. Resource 2 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 9 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Risk Assessment and Management Teams: A Comprehensive Approach to Early Intervention in Workplace Violence - James Kenny 31/03/2010

        Article  Overview: This article discusses best practice in the area of risk management of workplace violence including the development of management teams to respond appropriately to such threats and incidents. Considerations: As you read critically evaluate the approach, what strengths and weaknesses can you identify?

      2. Workplace Violence Prevention and Response Guideline

        Document  Overview: This paper provides an overview of the key policies, processes and protocols that can be used to prevent and manage workplace violence. Considerations: Consider how dependent approaches are to context, do you agree with all the approaches suggested?

      3. ASIS Issues Workplace Violence Prevention Guide. 2006

        Article  Overview: This paper provides an overview of the key policies, processes and protocols that can be used to prevent and manage workplace violence. Considerations: Consider how dependent approaches are to context, do you agree with all the approaches suggested?

      4. Zero Tolerance Measured Response - Mental Welfare Commission

        Document Essential Overview: This paper discusses the use and misuse of zero tolerance policies and practices in mental health and disability services. Considerations: What are the implications for law enforcement in enforcing such policies?

      5. A Generation Later: What We’ve Learned about Zero Tolerance in Schools - J Kang-Brown, J Trone, J Fratello, T Daftary-Kapur,

        Document Essential Overview: This paper provides a more detailed understanding of the pros and cons of zero tolerance violence in schools. Considerations: How persuaded are you by the arguments made?

      6. VicHealth (2012) Preventing violence against women in the workplace (An evidence review: summary report), Victorian Heath Promotion Foundation, Melbourne, Australia. - VicHealth 2012

        Webpage Essential Overview: From this Australian guide you will learn about an examination of the types of workplace violence faced by women. Considerations: What do you consider to be appropriate responses to prevent and manage this phenomena?

      7. An Emerging Awareness of the Role Organizational Culture and Management Style Can Play in Triggering Workplace Violence - V Bowie

        Document Essential Overview: From this work you will gain an understanding of emerging research on workplace violence. Considerations: As you read consider how practice and policies around the issue of workplace violence can be triggered by organisational climate, culture and management.

      8. Health care in danger- The Human Cost - ICRC

        Article  Overview: This video (13:52) provides an insight in to the specific challenges for the provision of health and welfare services in war and conflict zones. Considerations: Can the insights that are generated here offer lessons for responding to workplace violence in other contexts?

      9. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work - E u r o p e a n A g e n c y f o r S a f e t y a n d H e a l t h a t W o r k

        Webpage  Overview: Here you are presented with an outline of the new and emerging risks in the European workplace. Considerations: What can you learn about the potential triggers to new forms of occupational violence?

    3. Resource 3 - Required and Recommended Reading/Viewing/Listening 5 items
      To supplement this Module you should now access the following, some of which may be drawn from the core texts. All Required Reading is indicated by the term 'Essential'
      1. Workplace bullying and harassment: building a culture of respect

        Document Essential Overview: This provides a more detailed explanation of the case study. Considerations: What additional information would you have wanted to measure the effectiveness of the initiative? Consider the advantages of involving staff and other stakeholders in the design of a workplace policy: • What approaches to tackling workplace bullying did it lead to, that may not otherwise have been included? • How is the outcome more successful as a result?

      2. United Association for Labor Education (UALE) - Workplace Bullying Materials - M Kaminski

        Webpage Essential Overview: The four case studies presented provide you with an insight into the range of issues in identifying bullying and then responding. Considerations: How might the response differ for organisations where there is no obvious support for victims? What would be needed to achieve a successful resolution?

      3. Health Care Workers in Danger Zones: A Special Report on Safety and Security in a Changing Environment - Lynda J. Redwood-Campbell, Sharonya N. Sekhar, Christine R. Persaud 10/2014

        Article Essential Overview: This provides a detailed explanation of the difficulties faced by health care professionals in dangerous settings. Considerations: What are the differences between the risks faced by workers in these areas compared to workers in the health service from bullying?

      4. The use of private security providers and services in humanitarian operations - A Stoddard,, A Harmer, V DiDomenico

        Document  Overview: This source examines the growing role of private security providers in supporting international aid and humanitarian operations. Considerations: Could the response be left to state sector law enforcement or is private sector involvement important?

      5. Security and Risk Management for Peacebuilding Organisations - L Fast

        Document  Overview: This guide looks at the challenges for humanitarian, human rights and peace making organisations as they attempt good security and risk management for their staff and those of local cooperating bodies. Considerations: As you read note the issues you consider to be most important in developing a strategic response.

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