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  1. General Sources 20 items
    The following sources are helpful in providing the basics of our discussions through the term, giving you background information and also helping you with further bibliography for essays.
    1. Key/ Background Readings 12 items
      1. The age of migration: international population movements in the modern world - Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller 2014

        Book 

      2. Debating the Ethics of Immigration: Is There a Right to Exclude? - Christopher Heath Wellman, Phillip Cole 2011 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential

      3. The deportation regime - Nicholas De Genova 2010

        Book Essential

      4. Refugees and justice between states - Matthew J Gibney 10/2015

        Article Essential

      5. The Oxford handbook of refugee and forced migration studies 2014

        Book Essential Useful all-encompassing handbook.

      6. Atlas of migration in Europe: a critical geography of immigration policy - Olivier Clochard, Migreurp, Migreurop (Association) 2013

        Book 

      7. Europe's border crisis: biopolitical security and beyond - Nick Vaughan-Williams 2017

        Book 

    2. Journals, Websites and other e-sources 8 items
  2. Part I Migration and Security: how did we get here?

  3. Seminar 1. Introduction to the module. Sovereignty, security and borders: border-crossing and migration as security threat. 4 items
    This first seminar focuses on what is a border and on why migration is an important political topic in IR and Political theory and in general. It looks at the broad trends in and changing patterns of migration, outlines migration flows (the numbers of migrants moving between countries) and stocks (the numbers of migrants in countries and considers some of the challenges this presents to sovereignty and to liberal democratic states. It finally discusses the issue of securitisation and makes a short introduction to how perceiving migration as a security threat in the 21st century has altered states’ political and ethical obligations towards migrants. Key Questions • What is a border? • What are its political and ethical ramifications for the study of Politics and IR? • Has the 20th and 21st century changed the way we understand the movement of people?
    1. Class readings 2 items
      1. The migration debate - Sarah Spencer 2011

        Book Essential Read Introduction - up to page 43.

    2. Further Readings 2 items
  4. Seminar 2. The history and figures of migration 9 items
    We will in this seminar focus on the different historical phases of modern migration, on the reasons why people migrate and how these might have changed over time, and finally on the different categories of figures arising in the debate of international migration: the migrant worker, the forced migrant, refugee and/or asylum seeker, the irregular and undocumented migrant but also the trafficker and migrant smuggler. In conclusion, the seminar will look at discussions on otherness by exploring scapegoating in migration and security studies. Key Questions • Why do people migrate? • What is a refugee? How does she differ from a forced migrant? • Are race, gender and class important factors when we analyse migratory flows and/or discuss migration?
    1. Class readings 4 items
      1. Who Is a Refugee? - Andrew E. Shacknove 1985

        Article Essential

    2. Further Readings 5 items
      1. What is a refugee? - William Maley 2016

        Book Background

  5. Seminar 3. Why do migration policies fail? Migration and International Institutions 8 items
    Focusing on the international level, this seminar will explore the key international organisations and institutions involved in the management and governance of international migration. It will seek to answer the question “why do migration policies fail?” and will explore the issue of institutional responsibility both in the failure of migration policies but also in the high number of recorded deaths of migrants. Building on this, it will assess the presence and power of relevant (I)NGOs in migration management and the role of “open borders” activism. Key Questions • What are the key international organisations and institutions involved in the management and governance of international migration? • Why do migration policies fail? • Are migration management (I)NGOs a force of good
    1. Class readings 3 items
      1. Migration and Refugee Governance in the Mediterranean - S. Wolff 2015

        Document Essential An IAI working paper.

      2. Why migration policies fail. - Castles, Stephen 2004

        Article Essential

    2. Further Readings 5 items
      1. The border security economy - Olivier Clochard, Claire Rodier

        Chapter 

  6. Seminar 4. Securitisation of Migration 10 items
    This seminar will explore how migration both on the theoretical and policy level has been affected by the securitisation debate in IR and IPT briefly discussed in the first week of the module. It will look at how the management of migration as we know it today has been assembled since the 1980s leading to an often violent migration management paradigm where a binary in policy making is clearly established between the policy makers who oppose migration, and those who support it, so long as it is properly managed, and with all other positions generally seen at best as utopian. With “transit countries” and the figure of the “illegal migrant” as its key concepts, we will see how securitisation has enabled the externalisation of borders on one hand and opaque and unaccountable violent practices on the other, shifting responsibilities on the migrants themselves and other individuals and away from the international institutions examined in week 6. Key Questions • What do we mean by “securitisation”? • Is migration securitised? What does this mean? If so, examples? • What are the repercussions of considering migration as a security issue/threat? • What policy options could curtail the recent apparent violence in migration flows?
    1. Class readings 2 items
    2. Further Readings 8 items
  7. Part II The theoretical context of international migration in the age of securitisation

  8. Seminar 5. Normative theoretical approaches to migration. 9 items
    This seminar will provide a brief overview of the traditional IR and IPT approaches to migration with 1980s as a point of departure: it will first look at what is considered to be the seminal works on (ethics of) migration in IPT (Michael Walzer and Joseph Carens). It will next focus on the attempt to construct an ethics of migration based on human rights discourse (the right of free movement and the right to leave), and in continuation it will explore how issues of migration are incorporated in discussions of global justice, in other neo-Kantian approaches and Philip Cole’s work on open borders.
    1. Class readings 3 items
    2. Further Readings 6 items
      1. The Ethics of Immigration - Veit Bader 09/2005

        Article Background

      2. The rights of others: aliens, residents and citizens - Seyla Benhabib 2004

        Book Background

      3. The Ethics of Immigration - Jonathan Seglow 09/2005

        Article Background

  9. Seminar 6. Poststructuralist accounts of hospitality and Critical Security studies 10 items
    This seminar focuses on the alternative, non-foundational approaches to migration that are of currency today. Juxtaposing the autonomy of migration approach to the mainstream poststructuralist account of otherness in IR theory often presented under the name of hospitality (for instance, Dan Bulley, Jenny Edkins, Elisabeth Dauphinee), it will lead the discussion to the current debate around migration and border crossing in Critical Security studies (Nick Vaughan-Williams, Vicki Squire, etc.) attempting a preliminary examination of the impact of securitisation on theorising migration to be further explored in week 8. Key Questions • Is there a unified poststructuralist approach to border-crossing and migration? • How does the concept of Otherness appear in IR and IP theory? • How do biopolitical approaches contribute to the understanding of migration governance?
    1. Class readings 3 items
      1. The Scandal of the Refugee - M. Dillon

        Chapter Essential

    2. Further Readings 7 items
      1. We Refugees - G. Agamben 1995

        Article Background

      2. HOSTIPITALITY - J Derrida

        Article Background

  10. Seminar 7. Migration and Global Economy 11 items
    Starting with traditional notions that relate migration with International Political Economy (IPE), such as brain drain/gain and the impact of migration control on national and international economies, this seminar will then examine a specific aspect of IPE global governance: trade agreements and organisations. It will present various global and regional strategies shaping trading, treaties and borders (e.g. Bretton Woods institutions, EU, COMECON, NAFTA, TPP, investment regulation) in order to explore the way these influence - and are influenced by - large-scale movements of people creating an interdependence further accentuated by the international labour rights regime. Looking at postcolonial critiques and Critical IPE, it will seek to answer two questions: how is the process of globalisation related to the increase of migratory flows from less developed countries to Western ones? Can intersectionality help us to understand IPE’s relation to migration through the lenses of social property relations and the concepts of class, race and gender? Key Questions • Are concepts like brain drain/gain useful? If so, how? • What is the effect of the various global and regional strategies shaping trade, treaties and borders (e.g. Bretton Woods institutions, EU, COMECON, NAFTA, TPP, investment regulation) on migration and migration management? • Is global social inequality related to migration flows? • What does the use of intersectionality help us understand about international migration?
    1. Class readings 3 items
      1. Migration and Inequality - R. Black, C. Natali, J. Skinner 20/01/2005

        Document Essential

    2. Further Readings 8 items
      1. Border as Method, or, the Multiplication of Labor - Sandro Mezzadra, Brett Neilson 2008

        Document Essential

  11. Seminar 8. Domestic politics, integration and multiculturalism – “Everyday borders” documentary. 16 items
    Drawing from and linking to issues and concepts discussed in previous weeks, we will delve in the question of domestic politics to look at how they affect migration at the international level. Inquiring into the issues of diversity, integration and multiculturalism, students will be asked to ponder on the topics covered in the previous weeks while watching the 2016 documentary “Everyday borders”. Directed by Orson Nava, Everyday Borders explores the peaceful coexistence of multicultural Britain after the 2014 Immigration Act and the 2015-16 Immigration Bill. Shown at a number of UK universities to help raise awareness of issues of migration and migration policy, especially among students and young people, the documentary will present the students with the challenge of addressing current policy practices by using and consolidating their knowledge around international migration and the debates surrounding it. Key Questions • In what ways does migration affect domestic politics? • And vice versa: how can domestic politics affect the management of migration?
    1. Class readings 3 items
    2. Further Readings 13 items
      1. Immigration Act: overview - Home Office 2015

        Document Background

      2. Brexit and the Impact of Immigration on the UK - Jonathan Wadsworth, Swati Dhingra, Gianmarco Ottaviano, John Van Reenen 01/05/2016

        Document 

  12. Seminar 9. The EU and Migration: The case of Fortress Europe 13 items
    Wrapping up the material examined so far, the penultimate seminar will ask students to explore the example of Fortress Europe. Students will be asked to explore how during the current crisis, often defined as the biggest migration crisis since World War II, a parallel crisis is unfolding for the EU, that of migration management. With an increasing spending on what some experts have called “xenophobia business”, the creation of a specific European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and various bilateral agreements between EU member states and “source” countries, standard EU policy responses to regulate migration still have been found wanting. Fortress Europe has led to an extraordinarily elaborate and complex current system, which is not only unfit for purpose as the rising number of deaths in the Mediterranean and elsewhere show but which also results in exclusion and control that is simultaneously repressive, chaotic and dysfunctional, and whose consequences are often strikingly at odds with the policies’ stated rationalisations and objectives. How does our study of migration and securitisation enable us to critically assess this? Key Questions • Is Fortress Europe efficient? Is it moral? • Is there a corporate and business aspect to the closing of EU borders? • How does European Union’s proclaimed ethical cosmopolitanism sits together with the concept of Fortress Europe?
    1. Class readings 4 items
      1. Closing Europe’s Borders Becomes Big Business - Apostolis Fotiadis, Claudia Ciobanu 2013

        Webpage Essential

    2. Further Readings 9 items
      1. EU-Turkey statement, 18 March 2016 - Council of Europe 18/03/2016

        Proceedings Background

      2. Europe's border crisis: biopolitical security and beyond - Nick Vaughan-Williams 2017

        Book 

      3. Atlas of migration in Europe: a critical geography of immigration policy - Olivier Clochard, Migreurp, Migreurop (Association) 2013

        Book 

  13. Seminar 10Knowledge test, recap and essay guidance

    In this final week, we will jointly review the main topics of the module and test our knowledge through a self-evaluating test. Discussion of essay plans and relevant literature will also take place

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