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  1. Section 2: Globalizing the Contemporary World 0 items
  2. Reading is an integral part of this module! 1 item
    1. Below is a full reading list for the module, organised according to lecture. For each lecture there are two Key Readings which should be read in conjunction with each lecture. For each lecture I also note some key Questions which you should keep in mind while attending the lecture, whilst reading and to help with revision. This is followed by a short list of Further Reading. Particularly useful readings are marked with * and indicate either a good overview or a key contribution. Additionally, I have included a more 'hand on' activity for each lecture. Your understanding of topics introduced in lectures will be enhanced by your reading. But remember to read critically. i.e. do not simply just summarise the main arguments made in the readings but also try to ask questions about and interrogate what the readings say. In other words, how does the author make an argument, and how convincing do you consider that it is?

  3. Lecture 5: Globalization in the modernization period 1945-1980 and agents of development 17 items
    Synopsis This lecture first outlines some key concepts with respect to globalization. It then explores globalization processes in the period known as the modernization period, 1945-1980. An important feature of this period of globalization was the rise of global institutions, such as the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization. The responsibilities and operations of these core institutions of global governance will be outlined. These global institutions also run along-side other political organizations, including the nation state, civil society, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and New Social Movements (NSM). In this lecture we will briefly consider these different agents involved in globalization and development.
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. What is globalization? Outline the different approaches to understanding this term. 2. What are some of the key features of the modernisation period of globalization? 3. To what extent does contemporary globalization inherit processes and structures from the past? 4. What are the main global institutions that formed during Bretton Woods and how successful have they been in governing at the global scale?
    2. Key reading 6 items
      1. Geographies of globalization - Warwick E. Murray 2014

        Book Essential Good overview. Chapter 1. This is only available as hard copy. You will have to visit the library!

      2. Human geography: the basics - Andrew Jones 2012

        Book Essential Read chapter 2 'Globalization'. A useful background chapter.

      3. Introducing Human Geographies, Third Edition - Paul Cloke, Philip Crang, Mark Goodwin 2008

        Book Essential Please read chapters 20 and 21 on Theories of development and rethinking development.

      4. Globalisation: a brief exploration of its challenging, contested and competing concepts.by Butt A (2017)

        Webpage Essential You have to click through and enter your password to get to the article. Please persevere. See Spring 2017. See introduction to special issue 'Geography in uncertain times' by Willis and Noxolo 'Global geographies of a troubled day'.

      5. Geographies of development: an introduction to development studies - Potter, Robert B. 2008

        Book Background Please read Chapter 7: Institutions of development pp.275-312. Decent summary of different institutions but is a bit dated now.

      6. An introduction to human geography - P. W. Daniels 2012

        Book Background Please read chapter 24 by Dodds and Woon on Global governance. More of a detailed read, so useful as additional reading.

    3. Further reading 6 items
      1. Global shift: mapping the changing contours of the world economy - Dicken, Peter 2010

        Book Background * Good overview or a key contribution. Chapter 1: Questioning globalization

      2. Geographies of globalization: a critical introduction - Herod, Andrew 2009

        Book Background (Chapter 3). This item is currently on order

      3. Poverty and development into the 21st century - Thomas, Alan, Allen, Tim, Open University, Open University 2000

        Book Background Chapter 9: Agencies of development pp189-218

      4. Geographies of developing areas: the global South in a changing world - Williams, Glyn, Meth, Paula, Willis, Katie 2009 [i.e.2008]

        Book Background Chapter 9: Governing development

    4. Activity 5 items
      Read/listen to the news and collect some case studies of UN intervention at the moment. How successful has the UN been in promoting global governance in these places? Browse the home pages of the following organisations to get an idea of their role and functions.Read/listen to the news and collect some case studies of civil society organizations. How successful have they been promoting development in the Global South?
      1. One World

        Website Background A conglomeration of NGOs which carries news about development issues and has links to lots of other development organisations. A really useful website!

      2. Oxfam

        Website Background The long established international NGO. Can access information about world trade, debt and poverty alleviation.

  4. Lecture 6: Contemporary patterns of globalization: living in a multi-polar world 21 items
    Synopsis In the last lecture we brought the ‘story’ of globalization up to the 1980s. This lecture we will explore two more recent phases of globalization: The neo-liberal phase 1980-2007 and the post-millenium phase. First we examine the neo-liberal phase and question whether it enabled greater economic exchange and cultural transformations or whether it resulted in ever-increasing social and political inequalities? We then examine some of the most recent features of globalization, exploring the continued, but declining, role of America, the so-called ‘global rebalancing’ of the north-south divide, with the rise of the emerging economies in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, China, India, etc) and the emergence of some African nations as important players in the global economy (Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa). Contemporary globalization is characterized by three key features: first, by the rapidity and fluidity of changes to the patterns of globalization; secondly, by the spaces of poverty and wealth experienced everywhere at various spatial scales (global, national, inter-regional, households etc); thirdly, contemporary globalization processes partly build on inheritances from the past and are partly the result of new social and economic processes. These features suggest that notions of development based on a north-south divide are misleading and rather simplistic: rather we are living in a rapidly changing multi-polar world in which some global inequalities are inherited from the past while others represent new ‘layers’ of inequality.
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. What are the key features of the neo-liberal period of globalization? 2. Has globalization during this period resulted in increased or decreased economic and social inequalities at the global and local scale? 3. In what ways do post millennium patterns and processes of globalization present challenges to conventional development models? 4. How and why does place/geography matter when considering contemporary globalization?
    2. Key reading 6 items
      1. Overton, J., Murray, W. E., & Banks, G. (2012). The Race to the Bottom of the Glass? Wine, Geography, and Globalization. Globalizations, 9(2), 273-287.

        Webpage Essential Either read this case study or the transnational gentrification one or Mawdsley. Nice case study showing how globalization has and will continue to produce increasingly complex and intricate geographies.

      2. Transnational gentrification: Globalisation and neighbourhood change in Panamas Casco Antiguo - T. Sigler, D. Wachsmuth 01/03/2016

        Article Essential Either read this case study or the wine one or Mawdsley. Another interesting case study of globalization and urbanization process, focusing on transnational gentrification. The case study challenges conventional notions of globalization by showing that residents are transnational and property developers are local.

      3. Mawdsley, E. (2017). Development geography 1: Cooperation, competition and convergence between ‘North’and ‘South’. Progress in Human Geography, 41(1), 108-117. - Emma Mawdsley 02/2017

        Article Background Read this or wine or gentrification case study. A good summary of the changing vectors of North–South relationships that have dominated post-1945 international development norms and structures. A more detailed read, but a really useful one.

      4. Global shift: mapping the changing contours of the world economy - Dicken, Peter 2010

        Book Essential Read this or Murray chapter. Ebook version. Chapter 2: Global shift: changing geographies of the global economy. A useful discussion of issues discussed in lecture.

      5. Geographies of globalization - Warwick E. Murray 2014

        Book Essential Chapter 7: Inequality, development and globalization . Read this or Dicken chapter.

      6. An introduction to human geography - P. W. Daniels 2012

        Book Essential Please read chapters 3 'The making of the twentieth and twenty-first century world' by Denis Shaw and chapter 8 'Worlds apart? The changing geographies of global development' by Marcus Power

    3. Further reading 11 items
      1. Geographies of development: an introduction to development studies - Potter, Robert B. 2008

        Book Background Read chapter 1 questioning development and Chapter 4 on globalization, development and underdevelopment pp.127-180

      2. Geographies of globalization: a critical introduction - Herod, Andrew 2009

        Book Background On order. Chapter 5: Globalizing empires

      3. From recipients to donors: emerging powers and the changing development landscape - Mawdsley, Emma 2012

        Book Background See Chapter 1

      4. New African Choices? The Politics of Chinese Engagement - Giles Mohan, Marcus Power 03/2008

        Article Background * Good overview or a key contribution

      5. Global Rebalancing: Crisis and the East-South Turn - Jan Nederveen Pieterse 01/2011

        Article Background * Good overview or key contribution

      6. Geographies of Development: New Maps, New Visions? - James D. Sidaway 02/2012

        Article Background

    4. Activity 4 items
      1. Page http://www.oecd.org/eco/economicoutlook.htm  
      2. Page  http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02qztq9
  5. Lecture 7: Flows of labour and capital: the everyday lived realities of economic globalization 23 items
    Synopsis This lecture starts to examine in more depth some of the contemporary economic processes of globalization outlined in the previous lecture. In particular, we will focus on flows of labour, international capital and flows of people. We then start to consider globalization from below, in terms of the everyday lives realities of people living and working in the global south, with a focus on the informal sector. This is exemplified through a case study of child labour in Brazil. In the conclusions, by changing the frame to an understanding of the everyday impact of economic globalization on people’s lives, I question whether this promotes an empathetic and emotional response to economic globalization and what difference this might make and to whom?
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. What are some of the key economic processes involved in globalization and to what extent are these ‘new’ processes? 2. How is the world shaped by the interaction between economic, political and cultural processes operating at different, but connected, geographical scales, from the global through the national to the local? 3. How and why might emotions matter when thinking about economic globalization? 4. To what extent are the outcomes of economic globalization socially and spatially uneven? ie does place matter? 5. In what ways does the global south play a crucially important and active role in processes of contemporary economic globalization?
    2. Key reading: 6 items
      1. Introducing Human Geographies, Third Edition - Paul Cloke, , Philip Crang, , and Mark Goodwin 2013

        Book Essential Please read chapter 23 'Human geographies of the global south' and chapter 28 'economic geographies of globalization'.

      2. An introduction to human geography - P. W. Daniels 2012

        Book Background Read chapter 14 Geography of the economy and chapter 18 global financial systems.

      3. Resilient Labour: Workplace Regimes, Globalisation and Enclave Development in Swaziland - Vito Laterza 02/04/2016

        Article Essential Read this or one the of the following 3 case study articles. Important article as shows that the legacy of apartheid enclave development casts a shadow over workers’ futures. ie how historical legacies shape contemporary patterns of economic globalization.

      4. ‘Joining the BBC (British Bottom Cleaners)’: Zimbabwean Migrants and the UK Care Industry - Joann McGregor 07/2007

        Article Essential This nuances article investigates why social care has become an important focus of employment for Zimbabweans working as carers in the UK.

      5. Bringing globalization to the countryside: Special Economic Zones in India - Mohammad Amir Anwar, Pádraig Carmody 05/2016

        Article Essential Useful as shows impact of economic globalization 'on the ground'

      6. Routes, locations, and social imaginary: a comparative study of the on-going production of geographies in Somali forced migration - Marnie Shaffer, Giulia Ferrato, Zaheera Jinnah 24/07/2017

        Article Essential Interesting perspective- seeks to understand migration from the perspective of migrants,

    3. Further reading: 13 items
      1. Geographic mobility and social inequality among Peruvian university students - Ryan Wells, Ricardo Cuenca, Gerardo Blanco Ramirez, Jorge Aragón 2017-5-6

        Article 

      2. Geographies of developing areas: the global South in a changing world - Williams, Glyn, Meth, Paula, Willis, Katie 2009 [i.e.2008]

        Book Essential See Chapter 4 The south in a globalizing economy and chapter 7 Making a living

      3. Caribbean Transnational Return Migrants as Agents of Change - Dennis Conway, Robert B. Potter 01/2007

        Article Background

      4. Transforming South-North Relations? International Migration and Development - Kavita Datta 01/2009

        Article Background * Good overview or key contribution

      5. Geographies of Responsibility - Doreen Massey

        Article Background

      6. Africa, China and the ‘new’ economic geography of development - Giles Mohan, Marcus Power 03/2009

        Article Background * Good overview or key contribution

    4. Activity 4 items
      Search one of the following sites:
      1. World migration report 2015 - International Organization for Migration 2015

        Website Background

      2. Page On the slums of Govindpuri in India’s capital, Delhi. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02hm1rx   On Kampala's thriving trade in Europe's second-hand clothes http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02jscl6    
      3. Page http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02gwk4x http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-30880085  
  6. Lecture 8: Political globalization: the rise of global governance from above and resistance from below 13 items
    Synopsis In the last lecture we examined some of the processes of economic globalization. In this lecture the focus will be on political globalization. First we examine the importance of history when trying to understand contemporary geopolitics. This is followed by a brief summary of the changing patterns of superpower politics in the contemporary period. Historically, political planning frequently fell to governments to implement policy and plan at the national level. However, we go on to explore globalization has altered the way politics is practiced in 2 main ways. First, we consider how the nation state has been challenged ‘from above’ by the rise of trans-state forms of governance (such as World Bank, WTO). Secondly, we consider how politics is influenced and resisted ‘from below’ by civil society groups and informal community institutions that contest national and transnational political policies. Case studies illustrate various forms of political resistance ranging from individual everyday withdrawal by street sellers, to challenging national formal politics by APPO in Mexico to struggle at the transnational scale through the anti-globalization movement. In the conclusions we recognize that political power is never absolute and that the global south has played an active role in shaping contemporary geopolitics- albeit that the political odds are still stacked against the most marginal and poor groups.
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. How is globalization altering the way politics is practiced from above and below? 2. In what ways has trans-state governance from above challenged the role of the nation state? 3. To what extent has contemporary geopolitics involved a shift from a bi-polar to a multi-polar world? 4. In what ways does the global south play active role in processes of contemporary geopolitics? 5. What are the various ways in which political processes have been resisted at a variety of different scales and from a variety of places? 5. How and why does political globalization show geographical variations?
    2. Key reading 5 items
      1. Introducing Human Geographies, Third Edition - Paul Cloke, , Philip Crang, , and Mark Goodwin 2013

        Book Essential Read chapters 22 and 35 'survival and resistance' and 'Critical geopolitics'

      2. Geographies of globalization - Warwick E. Murray 2014

        Book Essential Chapter 5 Globalizing political geographies. This is available as hard copy in the library.

      3. An introduction to human geography - P. W. Daniels 2012

        Book Background Read chapters 20 and 22 Geopolitical traditions and the place of the nation state

      4. Practices of Solidarity: Opposing Apartheid in the Centre of London - Gavin Brown, Helen Yaffe 01/2014

        Article Essential Read this article by Gavin Brown (in our dept) or the one below by Clare Madge (also at Leicester)

    3. Further reading 4 items
      1. Protest Camps in International Context: Spaces, Infrastructures and Media of ... - by Gavin Brown, Anna Feigenbaum, Fabian Frenzel, Patrick McCurdy

        Book 

      2. Geographies of developing areas: the global South in a changing world - Williams, Glyn, Meth, Paula, Willis, Katie 2009 [i.e.2008]

        Book Essential Chapter 3 The south in a changing world oder and Chapter 6 Political Lives

      3. Geographies of globalisation: a demanding world - Barnett, Clive, Robinson, Jennifer, Rose, Gillian, Open University 2008

        Book Background Chapter 8 The geopolitics of intervention: presence and power in global politics

    4. Activity 4 items
  7. Lecture 9: Cultural globalization: global convergence or localized hybridity? 31 items
    Synopsis This lecture outlines some processes of cultural globalization. First we consider some key ways in which cultural globalization might be conceived: assimilation, acculturation, autakism. We then briefly consider the long history of cultural globalization before moving on to consider contemporary processes of cultural globalization. Some argue that the world is becoming more culturally uniform and standardized/homogenous owing to Western cultural imperialism while others argue for a localized hybridity or global cultural heterogeneity (glocalization). But local cultures can also reassert themselves in the face of global processes resulting in a ‘mosaiced’ heterogeneity. This reassertion may be in negative ways (bounded, fixed, inward-looking) or positive ways (progressive, dynamic, outward-looking). Progressive ways of thinking about culture see it as ever changing and so globalization is not seen as a threat to existing cultures but as a stimulus to a positive new response revolving around ‘a progressive sense of place’ (Massey, 1994).
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. What are the different ways in which cultural globalization can be conceived and to what extent do these processes draw on long histories of cultural globalization? 2. Is cultural globalization resulting in cultural homogenization or localized hybridity? 3. What is a progressive sense of place? 4. How and why do perceptions about place matter when trying to understand contemporary cultural globalization?
    2. Key reading 6 items
      1. A global sense of place by Doreen Massey

        Document  A classic text. A must read for geographers!

      2. An introduction to human geography - P. W. Daniels 2012

        Book Essential Read chapter 13 'Geography, culture and global change'

      3. Introducing Human Geographies, Third Edition - Paul Cloke, , Philip Crang, , and Mark Goodwin 2013

        Book Essential Read chapters 33 on 'Colonialism and post-colonialism' and chapter 45 on 'Diasporas'.

      4. Brexit geopolitics - Veit Bachmann, James D. Sidaway 12/2016

        Article Background

      5. Geographies of globalization - Warwick E. Murray 2014

        Book Background Chapter 6 Globalizing cultural geographies. Hard copy in library.

    3. Further reading 9 items
      1. Provocations of the present: what culture for what geography? - Nadia Bartolini, Parvati Raghuram, George Revill 17/08/2016

        Article 

      2. Postcolonial geographies - Blunt, Alison, McEwan, Cheryl 2003

        Book Background See Dwyer "Where are you from?" Young British Muslim women and the making of 'home' pp184-199

      3. Space, place and gender - Massey, Doreen B. 1994

        Book Background ‘A global sense of place’ Marxism Today, June, 24-9; reprinted in this book.

      4. Mapping the futures: local cultures, global change - Bird, Jon 1993

        Book Background * good overview or key contribution. See pp60-70 - Power-geometry and a progressive sense of place

      5. Geographies of globalisation: a demanding world - Barnett, Clive, Robinson, Jennifer, Rose, Gillian, Open University 2008

        Book Background See pp151-188 - A place in the world: geographies of belonging’

      6. Geographies of developing areas: the global South in a changing world - Williams, Glyn, Meth, Paula, Willis, Katie 2009 [i.e.2008]

        Book Background * good overview or key contribution. Chapter 5 Social and cultural change in the South and Chapter 8 Ways of living

    4. Activity 3 items
      1. Page How identities are changing in a globalized world http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p03pzp1k   •Globalisation: is it changing the way we think? http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p019k47d   •Identity 2016: 'Global citizenship' rising http://www.bbc.co.uk... click to read more
      2. Page  ‘The back door to Mexico’ about Mexican- US immigration. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01tvqfz  `How Welcome are Africans in the UK?’ about African migration to the UK. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01m0yd7        
    5. Lectures 10 and 11 The Lusophone world 13 items
      Synopsis: Lectures 10 and 11 will be a case study of the Lusophone world. It will explore the key concepts and aims of this section of the module through the example of the Lusophone world.
      1. Key reading 4 items
        1. The first global village: how Portugal changed the world - Martin Page 2008

          Book 

        2. The Chinisation of Africa: The Case of Angola - Renato Aguilar, Andrea Goldstein 11/2009

          Article 

        3. Reverse FDI in Europe: An Analysis of Angola's FDI in Portugal - Carlos Pestana Barros, Bruno Damásio, João Ricardo Faria 03/2014

          Article 

      2. Further reading 9 items
        1. Elites' and Voters' Attitudes towards Austerity Policies and their Consequences in Greece and Portugal - Eftichia Teperoglou, André Freire, Ioannis Andreadis, José Manuel Leite Viegas 02/10/2014

          Article 

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