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  1. Section 2: Globalizing the Contemporary World 0 items
  2. Reading is an integral part of this module! 1 item
    1. Below is a full reading list for the module, organised according to lecture. For each lecture there are two Key Readings which should be read in conjunction with each lecture. For each lecture I also note some key Questions which you should keep in mind while attending the lecture, whilst reading and to help with revision. This is followed by a short list of Further Reading. Particularly useful readings are marked with * and indicate either a good overview or a key contribution. Additionally, I have included a more 'hand on' activity for each lecture. Your understanding of topics introduced in lectures will be enhanced by your reading. But remember to read critically. i.e. do not simply just summarise the main arguments made in the readings but also try to ask questions about and interrogate what the readings say. In other words, how does the author make an argument, and how convincing do you consider that it is?

  3. Lecture 5: Globalization in the modernization period 1945-1980 and agents of development 15 items
    Synopsis This lecture first outlines some key concepts with respect to globalization. It then explores globalization processes in the period known as the modernization period, 1945-1980. An important feature of this period of globalization was the rise of global institutions, such as the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization. The responsibilities and operations of these core institutions of global governance will be outlined. These global institutions also run along-side other political organizations, including the nation state, civil society, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and New Social Movements (NSM). In this lecture we will briefly consider these different agents involved in globalization and development.
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. What is globalization? Outline the different approaches to understanding this term. 2. What are some of the key features of the modernisation period of globalization? 3. To what extent does contemporary globalization inherit processes and structures from the past? 4. What are the main global institutions that formed during Bretton Woods and how successful have they been in governing at the global scale?
    2. Key reading 5 items
      1. Geographies of development: an introduction to development studies - Potter, Robert B. 2008

        Book Essential Please read Chapter 7: Institutions of development pp.275-312

      2. Geographies of globalization - Warwick E. Murray 2014

        Book  Good overview or a key contribution. Chapter 1

      3. An introduction to human geography 2016

        Book  Please read chapter 24 by Dodds and Woon on Global governance

    3. Further reading 5 items
      1. Global shift: mapping the changing contours of the world economy - Dicken, Peter 2010

        Book Background * Good overview or a key contribution. Chapter 1: Questioning globalization

      2. Geographies of globalization: a critical introduction - Herod, Andrew 2009

        Book Background (Chapter 3). This item is currently on order

      3. Poverty and development into the 21st century - Thomas, Alan, Allen, Tim, Open University, Open University 2000

        Book Background Chapter 9: Agencies of development pp189-218

      4. Geographies of developing areas: the global South in a changing world - Williams, Glyn, Meth, Paula, Willis, Katie 2009 [i.e.2008]

        Book Background Chapter 9: Governing development

    4. Activity 5 items
      Read/listen to the news and collect some case studies of UN intervention at the moment. How successful has the UN been in promoting global governance in these places? Browse the home pages of the following organisations to get an idea of their role and functions.Read/listen to the news and collect some case studies of civil society organizations. How successful have they been promoting development in the Global South?
      1. One World

        Website Background A conglomeration of NGOs which carries news about development issues and has links to lots of other development organisations. A really useful website!

      2. Oxfam

        Website Background The long established international NGO. Can access information about world trade, debt and poverty alleviation.

  4. Lecture 6: Contemporary patterns of globalization: living in a multi-polar world 21 items
    Synopsis In the last lecture we brought the ‘story’ of globalization up to the 1980s. This lecture we will explore two more recent phases of globalization: The neo-liberal phase 1980-2007 and the post-millenium phase. First we examine the neo-liberal phase and question whether it enabled greater economic exchange and cultural transformations or whether it resulted in ever-increasing social and political inequalities? We then examine some of the most recent features of globalization, exploring the continued, but declining, role of America, the so-called ‘global rebalancing’ of the north-south divide, with the rise of the emerging economies in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, China, India, etc) and the emergence of some African nations as important players in the global economy (Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa). Contemporary globalization is characterized by three key features: first, by the rapidity and fluidity of changes to the patterns of globalization; secondly, by the spaces of poverty and wealth experienced everywhere at various spatial scales (global, national, inter-regional, households etc); thirdly, contemporary globalization processes partly build on inheritances from the past and are partly the result of new social and economic processes. These features suggest that notions of development based on a north-south divide are misleading and rather simplistic: rather we are living in a rapidly changing multi-polar world in which some global inequalities are inherited from the past while others represent new ‘layers’ of inequality.
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. What are the key features of the neo-liberal period of globalization? 2. Has globalization during this period resulted in increased or decreased economic and social inequalities at the global and local scale? 3. In what ways do post millennium patterns and processes of globalization present challenges to conventional development models? 4. How and why does place/geography matter when considering contemporary globalization?
    2. Key reading 6 items
      1. Global shift: mapping the changing contours of the world economy - Dicken, Peter 2010

        Book Essential Ebook version. Chapter 2: Global shift: changing geographies of the global economy

      2. Geographies of development: an introduction to development studies - Potter, Robert B. 2008

        Book Essential Chapter 4 on globalization, development and underdevelopment pp.127-180

      3. An introduction to human geography 2016

        Book  Please read chapters 3 'The making of the twentieth and twenty-first century world' by Denis Shaw and chapter 8 'Worlds apart? The changing geographies of global development' by Marcus Power

    3. Further reading 11 items
      1. Geographies of globalization: a critical introduction - Herod, Andrew 2009

        Book Background On order. Chapter 5: Globalizing empires

      2. From recipients to donors: emerging powers and the changing development landscape - Mawdsley, Emma 2012

        Book Background See Chapter 1

      3. New African Choices? The Politics of Chinese Engagement - Giles Mohan, Marcus Power 03/2008

        Article Background * Good overview or a key contribution

      4. Geographies of globalization - Warwick E. Murray 2014

        Book  Chapter 7: Inequality, development and globalization

      5. Global Rebalancing: Crisis and the East-South Turn - Jan Nederveen Pieterse 01/2011

        Article Background * Good overview or key contribution

      6. Geographies of Development: New Maps, New Visions? - James D. Sidaway 02/2012

        Article Background

    4. Activity 4 items
      1. Page http://www.oecd.org/eco/economicoutlook.htm  
      2. Page  http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02qztq9
  5. Lecture 7: Flows of labour and capital: the everyday lived realities of economic globalization 21 items
    Synopsis This lecture starts to examine in more depth some of the contemporary economic processes of globalization outlined in the previous lecture. In particular, we will focus on flows of labour, international capital and flows of people. We then start to consider globalization from below, in terms of the everyday lives realities of people living and working in the global south, with a focus on the informal sector. This is exemplified through a case study of child labour in Brazil. In the conclusions, by changing the frame to an understanding of the everyday impact of economic globalization on people’s lives, I question whether this promotes an empathetic and emotional response to economic globalization and what difference this might make and to whom?
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. What are some of the key economic processes involved in globalization and to what extent are these ‘new’ processes? 2. How is the world shaped by the interaction between economic, political and cultural processes operating at different, but connected, geographical scales, from the global through the national to the local? 3. How and why might emotions matter when thinking about economic globalization? 4. To what extent are the outcomes of economic globalization socially and spatially uneven? ie does place matter? 5. In what ways does the global south play a crucially important and active role in processes of contemporary economic globalization?
    2. Key reading: 6 items
      1. Geographies of developing areas: the global South in a changing world - Williams, Glyn, Meth, Paula, Willis, Katie 2009 [i.e.2008]

        Book Essential See Chapter 4 The south in a globalizing economy and chapter 7 Making a living

      2. An introduction to human geography 2016

        Book  Read chapter 18 'Geographies of money, finance and crisis' by Aalbers and Pollard

      3. Geographic mobility and social inequality among Peruvian university students - Ryan Wells, Ricardo Cuenca, Gerardo Blanco Ramirez, Jorge Aragón 2017-5-6

        Article 

    3. Further reading: 11 items
      1. Caribbean Transnational Return Migrants as Agents of Change - Dennis Conway, Robert B. Potter 01/2007

        Article Background

      2. Transforming South-North Relations? International Migration and Development - Kavita Datta 01/2009

        Article Background * Good overview or key contribution

      3. Geographies of Responsibility - Doreen Massey

        Article Background

      4. Africa, China and the ‘new’ economic geography of development - Giles Mohan, Marcus Power 03/2009

        Article Background * Good overview or key contribution

    4. Activity 4 items
      Search one of the following sites:
      1. World migration report 2015 - International Organization for Migration 2015

        Website Background

      2. Page On the slums of Govindpuri in India’s capital, Delhi. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02hm1rx   On Kampala's thriving trade in Europe's second-hand clothes http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02jscl6    
      3. Page http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02gwk4x http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-30880085  
  6. Lecture 8: Political globalization: the rise of global governance from above and resistance from below 12 items
    Synopsis In the last lecture we examined some of the processes of economic globalization. In this lecture the focus will be on political globalization. First we examine the importance of history when trying to understand contemporary geopolitics. This is followed by a brief summary of the changing patterns of superpower politics in the contemporary period. Historically, political planning frequently fell to governments to implement policy and plan at the national level. However, we go on to explore globalization has altered the way politics is practiced in 2 main ways. First, we consider how the nation state has been challenged ‘from above’ by the rise of trans-state forms of governance (such as World Bank, WTO). Secondly, we consider how politics is influenced and resisted ‘from below’ by civil society groups and informal community institutions that contest national and transnational political policies. Case studies illustrate various forms of political resistance ranging from individual everyday withdrawal by street sellers, to challenging national formal politics by APPO in Mexico to struggle at the transnational scale through the anti-globalization movement. In the conclusions we recognize that political power is never absolute and that the global south has played an active role in shaping contemporary geopolitics- albeit that the political odds are still stacked against the most marginal and poor groups.
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. How is globalization altering the way politics is practiced from above and below? 2. In what ways has trans-state governance from above challenged the role of the nation state? 3. To what extent has contemporary geopolitics involved a shift from a bi-polar to a multi-polar world? 4. In what ways does the global south play active role in processes of contemporary geopolitics? 5. What are the various ways in which political processes have been resisted at a variety of different scales and from a variety of places? 5. How and why does political globalization show geographical variations?
    2. Key reading 6 items
      1. Geographies of globalization - Warwick E. Murray 2014

        Book  Chapter 5 Globalizing political geographies

      2. Geographies of developing areas: the global South in a changing world - Williams, Glyn, Meth, Paula, Willis, Katie 2009 [i.e.2008]

        Book Essential Chapter 3 The south in a changing world oder and Chapter 6 Political Lives

      3. An introduction to human geography 2016

        Book  Please read chapters 20 'Geopolitical traditions' by Sidaway et al and chapter 22 'The place of the nation state' by Sidaway and Warr

      4. Protest Camps in International Context: Spaces, Infrastructures and Media of ... - by Gavin Brown, Anna Feigenbaum, Fabian Frenzel, Patrick McCurdy

        Book 

    3. Further reading 2 items
      1. Geographies of globalisation: a demanding world - Barnett, Clive, Robinson, Jennifer, Rose, Gillian, Open University 2008

        Book Background Chapter 8 The geopolitics of intervention: presence and power in global politics

    4. Activity 4 items
  7. Lecture 9: Cultural globalization: global convergence or localized hybridity? 28 items
    Synopsis This lecture outlines some processes of cultural globalization. First we consider some key ways in which cultural globalization might be conceived: assimilation, acculturation, autakism. We then briefly consider the long history of cultural globalization before moving on to consider contemporary processes of cultural globalization. Some argue that the world is becoming more culturally uniform and standardized/homogenous owing to Western cultural imperialism while others argue for a localized hybridity or global cultural heterogeneity (glocalization). But local cultures can also reassert themselves in the face of global processes resulting in a ‘mosaiced’ heterogeneity. This reassertion may be in negative ways (bounded, fixed, inward-looking) or positive ways (progressive, dynamic, outward-looking). Progressive ways of thinking about culture see it as ever changing and so globalization is not seen as a threat to existing cultures but as a stimulus to a positive new response revolving around ‘a progressive sense of place’ (Massey, 1994).
    1. Key questions 0 items
      1. What are the different ways in which cultural globalization can be conceived and to what extent do these processes draw on long histories of cultural globalization? 2. Is cultural globalization resulting in cultural homogenization or localized hybridity? 3. What is a progressive sense of place? 4. How and why do perceptions about place matter when trying to understand contemporary cultural globalization?
    2. Key reading 4 items
      1. Geographies of globalization - Warwick E. Murray 2014

        Book  Chapter 6 Globalizing cultural geographies

      2. Provocations of the present: what culture for what geography? - Nadia Bartolini, Parvati Raghuram, George Revill 17/08/2016

        Article 

      3. An introduction to human geography 2016

        Book  Please read chapter 13 'Geography, culture and global change' by McEwan and Daya and chapter 22 'The geographies of citizenship' by Yarwood

    3. Further reading 8 items
      1. Postcolonial geographies - Blunt, Alison, McEwan, Cheryl 2003

        Book Background See Dwyer "Where are you from?" Young British Muslim women and the making of 'home' pp184-199

      2. Space, place and gender - Massey, Doreen B. 1994

        Book Background ‘A global sense of place’ Marxism Today, June, 24-9; reprinted in this book.

      3. Mapping the futures: local cultures, global change - Bird, Jon 1993

        Book Background * good overview or key contribution. See pp60-70 - Power-geometry and a progressive sense of place

      4. Geographies of globalisation: a demanding world - Barnett, Clive, Robinson, Jennifer, Rose, Gillian, Open University 2008

        Book Background See pp151-188 - A place in the world: geographies of belonging’

      5. Geographies of developing areas: the global South in a changing world - Williams, Glyn, Meth, Paula, Willis, Katie 2009 [i.e.2008]

        Book Background * good overview or key contribution. Chapter 5 Social and cultural change in the South and Chapter 8 Ways of living

    4. Activity 3 items
      1. Page How identities are changing in a globalized world http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p03pzp1k   •Globalisation: is it changing the way we think? http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p019k47d   •Identity 2016: 'Global citizenship' rising http://www.bbc.co.uk... click to read more
      2. Page  ‘The back door to Mexico’ about Mexican- US immigration. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01tvqfz  `How Welcome are Africans in the UK?’ about African migration to the UK. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01m0yd7        
    5. Lectures 10 and 11 The Lusophone world 13 items
      Synopsis: Lectures 10 and 11 will be a case study of the Lusophone world. It will explore the key concepts and aims of this section of the module through the example of the Lusophone world.
      1. Key reading 4 items
        1. First Global Village - Martin Page

          Book 

        2. The Chinisation of Africa: The Case of Angola - Renato Aguilar, Andrea Goldstein 11/2009

          Article 

        3. Reverse FDI in Europe: An Analysis of Angola's FDI in Portugal - Carlos Pestana Barros, Bruno Damásio, João Ricardo Faria 03/2014

          Article 

      2. Further reading 9 items
        1. Elites' and Voters' Attitudes towards Austerity Policies and their Consequences in Greece and Portugal - Eftichia Teperoglou, André Freire, Ioannis Andreadis, José Manuel Leite Viegas 02/10/2014

          Article 

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