1. This list gives you suggested readings for each of the topics covered by the module.


    These provide you with references for both assignments.


    Remember also that you can (and should use) the core readings for the seminars which are in the a separate E Reading list and are not duplicated here.

  2. 1. Where and When was the Modern? 15 items
    1. Essay Reading 15 items
      1. The birth of the modern world, 1780-1914: global connections and comparisons - C. A. Bayly 2004


      2. The age of revolution, 1789-1848 - E. J. Hobsbawm 2000


      3. The age of capital, 1848-1875 - E. J. Hobsbawm 1975


  3. 2. Modernity, Reason and Secularisation 19 items
    1. Essay Reading 19 items
      1. This essay list gives you a range of readings about the different subjects we cover in this topic:

        1. the decline of magical beliefs
        2. the rise of new understandings of nature (i.e. the scientific revolution)
        3. the application of scientific methods to the study of society
        4. the Enlightenment and secularisation.

        The subjects will be clear from the titles. There will be considerable overlap between the readings on the same topics. The alternatives have been given to help you find readings that are most accessible. They also allow you to read in depth if you wish.       

      2. The Scientific Revolutions - Peter M. Heimann

        Chapter Background This is a broad survey extending from the Renaissance to the twentieth century.

      3. The scientific revolution - Steven Shapin 1996

        Book Essential Read pp. 30-46 ('The Natural Machine').

      4. Mechanical Philosophy - Margaret J. Osler

        Webpage Background This is a short, basic introduction.

      5. The Mechanical Philosophy - Richard S. Westfall

        Chapter Background

      6. Laws of Nature - J. R. Milton

        Chapter Background The chapter covers the seventeenth century.

      7. Genres and Objects of Social Inquiry: From the Enlightenment to 1890 - Theodore M. Porter

        Chapter Background The entire chapter is worth reading, but the following pages are essential: pp. 13-14 (i.e. the introductory remarks) and pp. 26-39.

      8. Social Thought and Social Science - William Outhwaite

        Chapter  This is a broad introductory survey which takes you from the sixteenth to the twentieth century.

      9. Social Sciences - Robert Brown

        Chapter Background This chapter is about the emergence of the social sciences during the eighteenth century, i.e. the period of the 'Enlightenment'.

      10. Social Thought and Natural Science - Johan Heilbron

        Chapter Background This chapter is about the impact of natural science (e.g. the theory of evolution) on social science during the nineteenth century. The final section is about the reaction against positivism.

      11. Religion and Secularisation - Peter Burke

        Chapter Background This covers the topic from the sixteenth to the twentieth century,

      12. The scientific revolution - Steven Shapin 1996

        Book Background pp. 142-55: 'Nature and God, Wisdom and Will'.

      13. Religion - Rivka Feldhay

        Chapter Background This chapter is about the impact of the scientific revolution on religion and in particular about the relationship between God and the natural world.

      14. A secular age - Charles Taylor 2007

        Book Background This is an advanced text and therefore one you should only turn to after you have mastered several of the introductory texts. The book is about how western society became secular (i.e. one in which belief in God is only one amongst a range of options). Fundamental to Taylor's argument is the experience of disenchantment, which involved a fundamental change in the outlooks, worldviews and belief systems of people from the seventeenth century. Parts 1 and 2 are the relevant sections of the book. Start with chapter one, 'The Bulwarks of Belief', and then dip in and out.

  4. 3. The Healthy Subject 15 items
    1. Essay Reading 15 items
      1. Section VI: The Pestilence - John Barry


      2. Typhoid - Anne Hardy

        Chapter Background

      3. The Healthy Body - Dorothy Porter

        Chapter Background

  5. 4. The Modern Self 7 items
    In this session we examine how a modern sense of the self and the individual emerged in the late 18th century. You need to read the Wahrman extracts carefully - there are many (perhaps too many) examples here but try to extract the key ideas about what distinguished the modern from the pre-modern self. You can reinforce and extend Wahrman's points from the background readings listed.
    1. Essay reading 7 items
      1. Keywords: a vocabulary of culture and society - Raymond Williams 2014

        Book  See entry on 'Individual'

      2. Assembling the Modern Self - Nikolas Rose

        Chapter Background Interesting on the self and the 'psy sciences' in the 20th century

      3. Democratic subjects: the self and the social in nineteenth-century England - Patrick Joyce 1994

        Book  Useful historical example from Victorian period

      4. The fall of public man - Richard Sennett 2002

        Book  All useful but especially Chapter 4

  6. 5. An Industrial World 13 items
    1. Essay reading 13 items
      1. The Present and the Past in the English Industrial Revolution 1880-1980 - David Cannadine 1984

        Article  Classic essay on changing interpretations of the industrial revolution

      2. Liberty's Dawn: A People's History of the Industrial Revolution - Emma Griffin 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book  Read Introduction - and as much as you can!

      3. Industrialisation and Society: A Social History, 1830-1951 - Eric Hopkins 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book  Chapter 1 to 4 only.

      4. Condition of the Working Class in England - Frederick Engels, ebrary, Inc 2000 (electronic resource)


      5. Behemoth: a history of the factory and the making of the modern world - Joshua Benjamin Freeman 2018


  7. 6. Imagined Communities: Nations and Nationalism 10 items
    1. Essay Reading 10 items
      1. The readings in this section are of two types:

        (a) General introductions and overviews of the topic.

        (b) Works that deal with specific aspects of nationalism (its relationship with the state, modernity, etc.)


      2. Nationalism - Andrew Vincent

        Chapter Essential

      3. Nations and nationalism - Ernest Gellner, John Breuilly 2006

        Book Essential Read Chapters 1,4,7 and 8.

      4. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism - Benedict R. O'G. Anderson 2006

        Book  Read Introduction and Chapters 1-3.

      5. Nationalism - John Hutchinson, Anthony D Smith 1994

        Book Background

  8. 7. Experiencing the Metropolis 9 items
    1. Essay Reading 9 items
  9. 8. Resisting and Reinventing Modernity 22 items
    1. Essay Reading 22 items
      1. This section is divided into three parts:

        1. Britain and North America
        2. Continental Europe
        3. Asia, Africa and the Middle East



        Readings about reactions to modernity in late 19th and early 20th century Britain and the United States, leading to adaptations to modernity and attempts to 're-enchant the imagination'.

      3. Roots of Antimodernism: The Crisis of Cultural Authority During the Late Ninteenth Century - T. J. Jackson Lears

        Chapter Essential For the tutorial focus on pp. 4-26 and 32-47

      4. The place of enchantment: British occultism and the culture of the modern - Alex Owen c2004

        Book Background The most relevant parts of this book are the Introduction and Chapter 8.



        Readings about reaction to modernity in continental Europe, leading to cultural despair and sometimes support for fascist movements.

      6. Popular Antimodernism - Shulamit Volkov

        Chapter Background This chapter comes from a book about the reactions of 'urban master artisans' in Germany to the effects of industrialisation on their status and livelihoods. The master artisans were independent skilled handicraft-workers who may also have been small employers of labour. They included bakers, blacksmiths, shoe makers, master bricklayers and tailors, i.e. those people most threatened by industrialisation.

      7. The Origins of Totalitarianism: The European Background - Klaus P. Fischer

        Chapter Background This is a brief overview of the deeper European roots of National Socialism in Germany. Fischer looks at nationalism, imperialism and racism between 1870 and the First World War. His comments about the European reaction against modernity start at the bottom of p. 12 and follow from his discussion of racism.

      8. Introduction - Fritz Stern

        Chapter Background This chapter is an introductory survey of the European reaction against modernity during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

      9. The Decade of the 1890s: The Revolt against Positivism - H. Stuart Hughes

        Chapter Background This chapter sets the scene for the rest of Stuart Hughes's book. It is about the reaction by intellectuals against the positivism that dominated mid-nineteenth century thought. Read this after Fischer and Stern.

      10. Generational Tension and Cultural Change: Reflections on the Case of Vienna - Carl E. Schorske 1978

        Article Background This article is about the reaction against nineteenth-century middle-class culture by a generation of Viennese intellectuals and artists during the final decades of the nineteenth century. You should only read this after you have looked at and understood the texts by Fischer, Stern and Stuart-Hughes.




        Readings about ideas about modernity in Asia, Africa and the Middle East. There are also relevant readings in Section One of this Reading List.

      12. Reinventing Modernity in Latin America: Intellectuals Imagine the Future, 1900-1930 - Nicola Miller, SpringerLink (Online service) 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book  Focus on the Introduction and Conclusion

      13. In the Face of the Machine: Westoxification, Cultural Globalization, and the Making of an Alternative Global Modernity - Shirin S. Deylami 2011

        Article  This is an article about Iranian and Islamic responses to ideas about 'modernity'.

      14. Chapter One of Shanghai modern: the flowering of a new urban culture in China, 1930-1945

        Chapter  Chapter 2, 'The Construction of Modernity in Print Culture', is also highly recommended.

      15. A voyage to modernism - Sayyid A�hmad �K�h�a�n 2011

        Book  Currently on order for the Library

  10. 9. Becoming Post-Modern 5 items
    1. Essay reading 5 items
      1. The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge - Jean-François Lyotard 1984 (various printings)

        Book  A (very) difficult but important short statement, which is discussed in the Core Reading by Jenkins. Have a go if the topic interests you, but do not give up if you are baffled. Other texts will be more accessible.

      2. The idea of the postmodern: a history - Johannes Willem Bertens 1995

        Book  Ch.6 and anything else you can

      3. Postmodernism and History - David Goodman 1993

        Article  Useful for American Studies

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